Godssecret's Weblog


Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes and the Bible
May 17, 2010, 7:49 am
Filed under: 2nd temple History, Jewish History

From Josephus, we know of five major sects:  Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, Zealots and Sicarii.  Josephus divides those sects into three groups:  Philosophical (religious), nationalist, and criminal. Of those listed, according to Josephus, the first three are religious: The Zealots and Sicarii, described as political or criminal factions by Josephus, were groups of extreme nationalists.  Their religious beliefs were inseparable from their political convictions.  This is not to say that the Pharisees and Sadducees were not political.  All of the sects of the second temple were political, and religious; there was no separation between the two.

The Hebrew name, Sadducee indicates that they are the followers of a descendant the family of the High Priest Zadok, who anointed Solomon king at the start of the First Temple Period.

The Sadducees were a priestly group, Aaronites, associated with the leadership of the Temple in Jerusalem. Sadducees represented the aristocratic group of the Hasmonean High Priests, who replaced the previous High Priestly lineage. The earlier Priestly lineage had been blamed for allowing the Syrian Emperor Antiochus IV Epiphanes to desecrate the Temple of Jerusalem with idolatrous sacrifices and to martyr monotheistic Jews. The Jewish holiday of Hanukkah celebrates the ousting of the Syrian forces, the rededication of the Temple, and the installment of the new Hasmonean priestly line. The Hasmoneans ruled as “priest-kings”, claiming the titles of high priest and king simultaneously, and like other aristocracies across the Hellenistic world became increasingly influenced by Hellenistic syncretism and Greek philosophies: presumably Stoicism, and apparently Epicureanism in the Talmudic tradition criticizing the anti-Torah philosophy of the “Apikorsus” אפיקורסות (i.e., Epicurus) refers to the Hasmonean clan . Sadducees. Like Epicureans, Sadducees rejected the existence of an afterlife, thus denied the Pharisaic doctrine of the Resurrection of the Dead.

The Dead Sea Scrolls community, which is popularly thought to have been Essene, was led by a high priestly leadership who are thought to be the descendents of the “legitimate” high priestly lineage, which the Hasmoneans ousted. The Dead Sea Scrolls bitterly opposed the current high priests of the Temple. Since Hasmoneans constituted a different priestly line, it was in their political interest to emphasize their family’s priestly pedigree that descended from their ancestor, the high priest Zadok, who had the authority to anoint the kingship of Solomon, son of David.

The Sadducees rejected the Oral Torah (Talmud), which the Pharisees claimed to be a continuously passed down oral tradition which Moses received on Mount Sinai as a companion and elucidation of the Written Torah (Five Book of Moses). Instead they insisted on strict literal interpretation of the Five books of Moses, the Written Torah.

Most of what is known about the Sadducees comes from Josephus:

For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes…the Sadducees are those that compose the second order, and take away fate entirely, and suppose that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil; and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men’s own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades…The Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as barbarous as if they were strangers to them.

The Sadducee sect emerged as major force only after the Hasmonean rebellion. The reason for this was not, in fact, a matter of religion. He claims that as complete rejection of Judaism would not have been tolerated under the Hasmonean rule, the Hellenists joined the Sadducees maintaining that they were rejecting not Judaism but Rabbinic law. Thus, the Sadducees were for the most part a political party and not a religious sect (Dorot Ha’Rishonim).

The Sadducees were rivals of the Herodians, since they had supported the Hasmonean Jewish rulers against King Herod. Closely associated with the Jerusalem Temple and with the ruling council (“Sanhedrin”) of the Jews . The Sadducees were the party of high priests, aristocratic families, and merchants—the wealthier elements of the population. They came under the influence of Hellenism, tended to have good relations with the Roman rulers of Israel, and generally represented the most secular view within Judaism. While their rivals, the Pharisees, claimed the authority of piety and learning, the Sadducees claimed that of birth and social and economic position. During the long period of the two parties’ struggle—which lasted until the Romans’ destruction of Jerusalem in 70 ad—the Sadducees dominated the Temple and its priesthood.

The Sadducees and Pharisees were in constant conflict with each other, not only over numerous details of ritual and the Law but most importantly over the content and extent of God’s revelation to the Jewish people. The Sadducees refused to go beyond the written Torah

Did not believe in life after death or in angels or spirits . The Sadducees were unpopular with the common people.

Professor Lawrence Schiffman also cites interpretations of the purity regulations in the Dead Sea scroll “MMT” (ca. 150 BC) which closely parallel Sadducean views recorded by the spiritual heirs of the Pharisees, who authored the Talmud (Oral Law). But more importantly, he identifies very detailed Pharisaic (or proto-Pharisaic) views in the MMT scroll. However there is evidence that there was an internal schism among those called “Sadducees”—some who rejected Angels, the Soul, and Resurrection—and some which accepted these teachings and the entirety of the Hebrew Bible.

In regard to criminal jurisdiction they were so rigorous that the day on which their code was abolished by the Pharisaic Sanhedrin under Simeon ben Shetah‘s leadership, during the reign of Salome Alexandra, was celebrated as a festival. The Sadducees are said to have insisted on the literal execution of the law of retaliation: “Eye for eye, tooth for tooth”, which pharisaic Judaism, and later rabbinic Judaism, rejected. On the other hand, they would not inflict the death penalty on false witnesses in a case where capital punishment had been wrongfully carried out, unless the accused had been executed solely in consequence of the testimony of such witnesses.

According to the Talmud, they granted the daughter the same right of inheritance as the son in case the son was dead (see chapter Yeish Nochalin of the Babylonain Talmud, tractate Bava Batra). Emet L’ Yaakov explains that the focus of their argument was theological. The question was whether there is an afterlife (see above), and if there is, can the dead person be in the line of inheritance as if they were alive.

According to the Talmud, they contended that the seven weeks from the first barley-sheaf-offering (“omer”) to Shavuot should, according to Leviticus 23:15-16, be counted from “the day after Sabbath,” and, consequently, that Shavuot should always be celebrated on the first day of the week (Meg. Ta’an. i.; Men. 65a). In this they followed a literal reading of the Bible which regards the festival of the firstlings as having no direct connection with Passover, while the Pharisees, connecting the festival of the Exodus with the festival of the giving of the Law, interpreted the “morrow after the Sabbath” to signify the second day of Passover.

In regard to rituals at the temple in Jerusalem:

  • They held that the daily burnt offerings were to be offered by the high priest at his own expense, whereas the Pharisees contended that they were to be furnished as a national sacrifice at the cost of the Temple treasury into which taxes were paid.

  • They held that the meal offering belonged to the priest’s portion; whereas the Pharisees claimed it for the altar.

  • They insisted on an especially high degree of purity in those who officiated at the preparation of the ashes of the Red Heifer. The Pharisees, by contrast, opposed such strictness.

  • They declared that the kindling of the incense in the vessel with which the high priest entered the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) was to take place outside, so that he might be wrapped in smoke while meeting the Shekhinah within, according to Lev. xvi. 2; whereas the Pharisees, denying the high priest the claim of such supernatural vision, insisted that the incense be kindled within.

  • They opposed the popular festivity of the water libation and the procession preceding it on each night of the Sukkot feast.

  • They opposed the Pharisaic assertion that the scrolls of the Holy Scriptures have, like any holy vessel, the power to render ritually unclean the hands that touch them.

  • They opposed the Pharisaic idea of the eruv, the merging of several private precincts into one in order to admit of the carrying of food and vessels from one house to another on the Sabbath.

  • In dating all civil documents they used the phrase “after the high priest of the Most High,” and they opposed the formula introduced by the Pharisees in divorce documents, “According to the law of Moses and Israel”.

Among the rabbis of the second century the following legend circulated: Antigonus of Soko, successor of Simeon the Just, the last of the Men of the Great Assembly, taught the maxim, “Be not like servants who serve their master for the sake of a reward, but be rather like those who serve without thought of receiving a reward” (Avot 1:3); whereupon two of his disciples, Zadok and Boethus, mistaking the high ethical purport of the maxim, arrived at the conclusion that there was no future retribution, saying, “What servant would work all day without obtaining his due reward in the evening?” Instantly they broke away from the Law and lived in great luxury, using many silver and gold vessels at their banquets; and they established schools which declared the enjoyment of this life to be the goal of man, at the same time pitying the Pharisees for their bitter privation in this world with no hope of another world to compensate them. These two schools were called, after their founders, Boethusians and Sadducees . The Boethusiam did not accept that when it says in the Torah to bring the Omer on the day of rest this referred to the first day of Passach. They refused to accept the oral tradition concerning this holding “day of rest” referred to the Shabbath. Responding to this the sages made the harvesting of the Omer a riqual with great fan-fare.

The Sadducees were the first reform movement in Judaism. They desired to relax religious law so that it became easy for them to assimilate among the nation..The Sadducees the political movement of the Hellenists, those who sought to abandon the ways of the Torah and live like the other nations. After the end of the 2nd temple this movement disappeared and there did not appear any other version than true Torah Judaism until right before the  Holocaust , shortly before which the “reform movement” of Judaism was started in Germany.

But in truth “Moses received all the mitzvot (commandments) (Ex. 24: 12). ‘And I give to you the Tablets of Stone, and the Law and the Commandment.’ The Law refers to the Written Torah; the Commandment to the Oral Torah, its explanation. Moses taught the whole of it in his court to the Seventy Elders, as well as to Joshua. Pinchas received it from Joshua; Eli from Pinchas; Samuel from Eli; David from Samuel; Ahiyah from David; Elijah from Ahiyah; Elisha from Elijah;  Jehoiada from Elisha; Zachariah from Jehoiada; Hosea from Zachariah; Amos from Hosea; Isaiah from Amos; Micah from Isaiah; Joel from Micah; Nahum from Joel; Hebakkuk from Nahum; Zephaniah from Habakkuk; Jeremiah from Zephaniah; Baruch from Jeremiah; Ezra from Baruch; Shimon HaTzaddik from Ezra; Antigonus from Shimon HaTzaddik; Yoseph ben Yoezer and Yoseph ben Yochanan from Antigonus; Yehoshua and Nittai from Yoseph ben Yoezer and Yoseph ben Yochanan; Yehuda and Shimon from Yehoshua and Nittai; Shemaiah and Avtaliah from Yehuda and Shimon; Hillel and Shammai from Shemaiah and Avtaliah; Rabban Shimon from his father, Hillel. and from Shammai; Rabban Gamaliel the Elder from his father Rabban Shimon; Rabbi Shimon from his father Rabban Gamaliel the Elder; our teacher, Rebbe Yehuda the Prince, from his father Rabbi Shimon; Rabbi Yochanan, Rav, and Shmuel from Rebbe Yehudah the Prince; Rav Huna from Rabbi Yochanan, Rav, and Shmuel; Rabbah from Rav Huna; Rava from Rabbah; and Rav Ashi received the Torah from Rav. All the sages mentioned here were the great men of the successive generations. Besides them, there were thousands and myriads of disciples and fellow students. Ravina and Rav Ashi closed the list of the sages of the Talmud. The Talmud is an exposition of the Mishnah, which was compiled by our teacher, Rebbe Yehuda the Prince. The Talmud elucidates the abstruse points of the Mishnah, ex­plaining what is permitted and forbidden, what is unclean and what is clean, what is unfit and what is fit, all in accordance with the traditions received by the sages from their predecessor in unbroken succession up to the teaching of Moses, “father of all prophets.”

The above is the true tradition of the Torah as it was passed down generation to generation.



The End Of Days ?
July 22, 2009, 8:40 am
Filed under: aretz israel, Israel, Jerusalem, Jewish History, President Obama, PROPHESY

How is it that thousands of years ago the ancient Hebrew prophets spoke of the Jews living again in the Land of Israel. They spoke of the nations of the world challenging the Jews sovereignty to Jerusalem ?. How is it possible that today 6 million Jews have returned to the Land Of Israel ? How is it Possible that today in the international news Jewish  sovereignty of Jerusalem is being challenged by the nations of the world ?

Is this the “end of days” Prophesy coming to fruition, are we seeing before our eyes the bible being fulfilled.

The land of Israel and Jerusalem have been in the news much lately :

Today again headlines

Pressure grows for end of East Jerusalem construction

Germany, France and Sweden joined a widening group of Western nations yesterday pressing Israel to stop construction in East Jerusalem and the West Bank under a U.S.-led effort to resume stalled peace talks.

In Berlin, Ruprecht Polenz, a senior member of German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Christian Democrats, was quoted as saying Israel ran the risk “of gradually committing suicide as a democratic state” if it did not stop the construction. Polenz, head of the German parliament’s Foreign Affairs Committee, told the Rheinische Post daily that “Israel is overlooking the fact that neither Palestinians nor Arab states will agree to a solution without East Jerusalem.”

The French Foreign Ministry summoned Israeli ambassador Daniel Shek to protest a planned housing project in East Jerusalem’s Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood.

Mitchell, Gates, Jones to visit Jerusalem next week

On backdrop of tension between Israel and US, President Obama decides to send senior officials to Jerusalem: Special Mideast envoy on Sunday, secretary of defense on Monday, and national security advisor on Tuesday

WILL PRESIDENT OBAMA FORCE THE ISSUE

In the Bible  the prophet Zechariah states:

All the nations of the earth will gather about Jerusalem. ”  (12:3)

Zechariah reveals

On that day I will destroy all the nations that come upon Jerusalem ”.  (12:3)In the Bible  the prophet Zechariah states:

All the nations of the earth will gather about Jerusalem. ”  (12:3)

Zechariah reveals

On that day I will destroy all the nations that come upon Jerusalem ”.  (12:3)

The prophet Joel tells us:

” The nations will be aroused to go up to the valley of Yehosaphat and I will sit to judge the nations all around “.  (4:12)

The Metsudat David explains that all the nations will be aroused to join the battle against Israel in the valley of Yehosaphat. This is at the time Gog wars against Jerusalem.

The prophet Zechariah explains the destruction further:

” The nations that siege Jerusalem, their flesh shall waste away while he stands on his feet, his eyes shall waste away in their sockets, so too his tongue “.  (14:2)

The Radak says this will not be from illness. Rashi explains that God shall visit their iniquities upon them without compassion, and in full measure of Divine justice.

Over 2000 years ago the prophet Micah describes The city of Jerusalem being rebuilt and a messianic government replacing a secular government that will precede it.

The Prophet Micah describes this end time:

” I will make her the remnant halted, daughter of Zion, to you shall it come. There will come the first government, the kingdom to the daughter of Jerusalem. Now why does she cry badly, because she has no king, and her counselor has perished?  For pangs have taken you as a woman in labor.  Be in pain and labor to bring forth, oh daughter of Zion “.  (4:7 – 10)

The Maharol of Prague Wrote that in the future the messianic king will establish a new kingdom which will emerge from the first kingdom which will precede it. It is as a unripe fruit grows in a peel till the fruit is ripe, then the peel decays. This is like Moses who grew up in the house of Pharoe.1 In the future the goverment on Israel will no longer be as it is now as there will be reestablished the Sanhedrin (governing body of 72 men).2

Zechariah describes:

” Therefore says YHVH  I have returned to Jerusalem with mercies. My house shall be rebuilt in it thus says YHVH TSVAOT and a line shall be stretched forth over Jerusalem. Proclaim further saying thus says YHVH TSVAOT My cities shall again overflow with property, and YHVH shall yet comfort Zion and shall choose Jerusalem ” (1:16-17)

Metsudat David explains this redemption shall be one of wondrous mercy because of the evil perpetrated against Israel. It is not because of their merit. GOD will be great comfort to Israel in the complete redemption.

The work of the Holy Temple will continue once again as we see from the Prophet  Jeremiah:

” Behold the days are coming says YHVH I will perform the good thing which I promised to the house of Israel, and to the house of Yehudah. In those days at that time, I will cause an offshoot of righteousness to grow up for David and He shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. In those days shall Yehudah be saved and Jerusalem shall dwell safely and this is the name whereby she shall be called YHVH  is our righteousness. Thus says YHVH David shall never lack a man sitting on the thrown of the house of Israel. Neither shall the Cohen and Levites lack a man before me to offer Burnt offerings and to burn Meal offerings and to do sacrifice for all days “(33:14-18)

The Radak explains “offshoot of righteousness” this refers to Messiah. The Metsudat David says we will call the place of Jerusalem when this prophesy is fulfilled YHV”H is our righteousness. This depicts a little how dramatic this time will be to Jerusalem. The Metsudat David teaches us from the words ” do sacrifice for all days” that there will not be cut off the sacrifice because there shall forever be this service. GOD will return the Cohaniam and all their aspects as described in the Torah into action again as in days of old.3

  1. 1Givurot GOD Chapter 18
  1. 2Seder Arekem-Atzerot Midrashim p.70
  1. 3Seder Arekem-Atzerot Midrashim p.70


A Little Jewish History-What are they doing to this People ?
January 28, 2009, 9:34 am
Filed under: exile, Jewish History


109 Locations whence Jews have been Expelled since AD 250

YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PLACE

250 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Carthage

415 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Alexandria

554 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Diocese of Clement (France)

561 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Diocese of Uzzes (France)

612 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Visigoth Spain

642 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Visigoth Empi

855 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Ital

876 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Sens

1012 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Mainz

1182 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – France

1182 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Germany

1276 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Upper Bavaria

1290 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – England

1306 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – France

1322 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – France (again)

1348 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Switzerland

1349 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Hielbronn (Germany)

1349 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Saxony

1349 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Hungary

1360 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Hungary

1370 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Belgium

1380 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Slovakia

1388 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Strasbourg

1394 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Germany

1394 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – France

1420 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Lyons

1421 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Austria

1424 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Fribourg

1424 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Zurich

1424 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Cologne

1432 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Savo

1438 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Mainz

1439 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Augsburg

1442 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Netherlands

1444 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Netherlands

1446 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Bavaria

1453 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – France

1453 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Breslau

1454 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Wurzburg

1462 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Mainz

1483 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Mainz

1484 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Warsaw

1485 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Vincenza (Italy)

1492 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Spain

1492 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Italy

1495 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Lithuania

1496 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Naples

1496 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Portugal

1498 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Nurember

1498 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Navarre

1510 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Brandenberg

1510 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Prussia

1514 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Strasbourg

1515 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Geno

1519 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Regensburg

1533 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Naples

1541 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Naples

1542 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Prague & Bohemia

1550 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Genoa

1551 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Bavaria

1555 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Pesaro

1557 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Prague

1559 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Austria

1561 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Prague

1567 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Wurzburg

1569 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Papal States

1571 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Brandenburg

1582 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Netherlands

1582 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Hungary

1593 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Brandenburg, Austria

1597 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Cremona, Pavia & Lodi

1614 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Frankfort

1615 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Worms

1619 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Kiev

1648 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Ukraine

1648 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Poland

1649 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Hamburg

1654 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Little Russia (Beylorus)

1656 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Lithuania

1669 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Oran (North Africa)

1669 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Vienna

1670 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Vienna

1712 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Sandomir

1727 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Russia

1738 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Wurtemburg

1740 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Little Russia (Beyloru

1744 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Prague, Bohemia

1744 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Slovakia

1744 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Livonia

1745 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Moravia

1753 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Kovad (Lithuania)

1761 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Bordeaux

1772 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Deported to the Pale of Settlement (Poland/Russia)

1775 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Warsaw

1789 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Alsace

1804 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Villages in Russia

1808 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Villages & Countrysides (Russia)

1815 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Lubeck & Bremen

1815 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Franconia, Swabia & Bavaria

1820 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Bremen

1843 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Russian Border Austria & Prussia

1862 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Areas in the U.S. under General Grant’s Jurisdiction[1]

1866 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Galatz, Romania

1880s – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Russia

1891 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Moscow

1919 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Bavaria (foreign born Jews)

1938-45 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Nazi Controlled Areas

1948 — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Arab Countries

Reference sources for the above. [link to www.sunray22b.net]

[1] On December 17, 1862, General Ulysses Grant wrote to the Assistant Adjutant General of the US Army:

“I have long since believed that in spite of all the vigilance that can be infused into post commanders, the specie regulations of the Treasury Department have been violated, and that mostly by the Jews and other unprincipled traders. So well satisfied have I been of this that I instructed the commanding officer at Columbus to refuse all permits to Jews to come South, and I have frequently had them expelled from the department. But they come in with their carpet-sacks in spite of all that can be done to prevent it. The Jews seem to be a privileged class that can travel anywhere. They will land at any woodyard on the river and make their way through the country. If not permitted to buy cotton themselves, they will act as agents for someone else, who will be at a military post with a Treasury permit to receive cotton and pay for it in Treasury notes which the Jew will buy at an agreed rate, paying gold.”

Also, on December 17, 1862, General Ulysses S. Grant issued General Orders No. 11. This order banished all Jews from Tennessee’s western military.

General Orders No. 11 declared: “1. The Jews, as a class, violating every regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department, are hereby expelled from the Department.

“2. Within 24 hours from the receipt of this order by Post Commanders, they will see that all of this class of people are furnished with passes required to leave, and anyone returning after such notification, will be arrested and held in confinement until an opportunity occurs of sending them out as prisoners, unless furnished with permits from these headquarters.

“3. No permits will be given these people to visit headquarters for the purpose of making personal application for trade permits.

“By order of Major Gen. Grant.

“Jno. A. Rawlings,
Assistant Adjutant General”

[link to www.biblebelievers.org.au]