A Succah must be at least 10 “amot” high
by 7 “amot” wide, thus 70 square amot is a Succah.
This is :
י is 10 sefirot (energy of Height)
ה is 7 sefirot (energy of width)
ו is 10 sefirot (energy of Height)
ה is 7 sefirot (energy of width)
These are the potential energies we have to work with.
70 includes all the power of all the
angels that work things in this world.
They are under the command of the angel called Matto”t
(Here is more on this infinite Wisdom)
The “Thum” (depths) has 70 “sarim” (supernal princes) that are “chitzon” (external) that surround Aretz Yisrael.1 The 70 nations receive their flow from אלהים of “din” according to their actions, while Yisrael draws from the 13 “dikna”. Yisrael draws power from the 13 “dikna” sweetening the dinim of אלהים.2 Above “ Artz Yisrael” in the “rekia” is a opening called גבילו”ן. Under this opening are 70 others, 70 “memunim” guard them from 2000 “amot” away, in the secret of “tachum Shabat” (Shabat limit). This opening goes up and up till reaching the כסא (the throne) which is Malchut. Its authority spreads from the opening over “Aretz Yisrael” until the opening called מגדו”ן, where the “rekia” over “Aretz Yisrael” ends.1 In The Torah are 70 explanations in “loshon Hakodesh”, which is Yesod, which contains 70 sefirot of Z’a. Each of its 7 sefirot containing 10.1
1Sulam on Zohar Vayikra p.20a
1Sulam on Zohar Vayachal p.209b
2Tefilot Ramcha’l #303
By the Arba minim (4 Species) we can
access all these energies and reveal them
for the betterment of the world and our selves !
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We will teach you to see and
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A beautiful wife is like a Etrog (citron). The etrog is a manifestation of your merit in this world. The state of your aspect of the “Shechinah” (Divine Presence)Man is the Groom and the Etrog is the Royal Bride. The body of the Groom contains 6 directions. These directions are his Kindness, discipline, balance, power of determination and ability of focus on detail. His way he works with the powers. The mentalities of the body are the “rachamim” (mercies) of these 6 directions. When the Etrog is taken with the (Lulov -Palm branch) these mentalities are drawn into it (from Heaven through the Lulov). The lights of mercy enter the Etrog. The root of “Rachamim” (Mercy) is “dat” (Knowledge). Before mercy can enter the Etrog it must be illuminated by “dat”. Lights of mental powers are drawn into the Etrog, and the Etrog is illuminated. Then all these “new” energies illuminate you and the whole world.
In the spiritual world of the sefirot, where man is considered the microcosm of Creation, it is the Yesod (gateway of energy) that parallels the organ of the Brit milah (circumcision). The High Holy Days come to help us rectify this very fundamental aspect of our lives, and connect us to flow of other divine powers that can come through out new “Yesod”
Jews eat and sleep in a Succah (Tabernacle) for the 7-day holiday of Succot
On succah we work energy with the four species, the lulav (Date palm branch) commands center stage, not only in towering above the etrog (citron), and willow branches, but the blessing that we recite in performing the mitzvah is over the “waving of the lulav.” The lulav is taken from the long, straight, upper branches of the date palm. In the holy Zohar, we find that the date palm, or tamar, represents the Tzaddik (the righteous individual) He conducts his life in utmost sexual purity, as in the case of Yosef, who was called Tzaddik, because he overcame the temptations of Potifar’s wife.
As we have said above “ The Yesod (gateway of energy) that parallels the organ of the Brit milah (circumcision).”
Its written :
“The tzaddik (righteous man) flourishes like the date palm; he grows like a cedar in Lebanon” (Psalms, 92:13).
“Regarding, ‘flourishes like a date palm,’ just as a date palm does not grow (and bear fruit) unless the male be planted by the female, so the tzaddik cannot flourish save when husband and wife are united, when the male aspect of tzaddik, is united with the female aspect of tzaddik, as with Avraham and Sarah” (Zohar, Bereshit 82a).
The Tzaddik is associated with the sefirah of Yesod (he has developed a great flow of spiritual energy), as its says, “Tzaddik yesod olam,” meaning “the Tzaddik is the foundation of the world” (Mishle, 10:25). Thus Yosef, who guarded his sexual purity, became the earthly channel of the Yesod to bring the blessing of G-d’s bounty into the world. From this we see that the lulav, in its spiritual connection to the sefirah of Yesod, is a powerful tool in rectify sexual transgression and drawing down Divine goodness to mankind.
Concerning the 4 species: 1) The Lulav branch towers above 2) the 3 myrtle branches 3) the 2 willow branches & 4) the Etrog citrus fruit
The 4 Species – Lulav branch towering above the others
Just as the Tzaddik excells over others in spiritual energy and shelters his generation, so too the lulav branch of the date palm rises above and looks over the three accompanying species. In waving the upright, male symbol of the luluv, the embodiment of the Yesod, we activate the female aspect of the Yesod above, drawing down Divine blessing. We “excite” the Shechinah above with the Lulov.
Accordingly, the holiday of Succot is also known as the Festival of the Harvest, or the Ingathering, when we harvest our material and spiritual blessings at the start of the year from the mercy of God and the work we did in Elul , Rosh Hashanah, the days of Teshuva and Yon kippor.. The Hebrew word for “the Harvest,” האסיף, has the same numerical value as Yosef, יוסף, once again hinting at the connection between sexual purity and the bounty of the Festival of the Harvest.
In its inner, spiritual essence, the lulav is like a healing laser beam whose light soars upward with our wavings to the furthest reaches of Heaven, healing the damaged Yesod and releasing its life-sustaining blessings. It opens up the Yesod-gateway of energy for more and greater quality flow. We wave the lulav toward the four directions of the compass, and up and down, a total of six directions, which parallels the Yesod, the sixth of the lower sefirot. There are many Kabbalistic meanings of the lulav and its wavings that come to remind us that our connection to G-d is directly influenced by our level of sexual purity, symbolized by the lulav, in its mystical association to the Yesod and the organ of the Brit. All is Dependant on the Yesod-gateway of energy.
Rabbi Yekutiel Zalman Zev points out that the lulav can to be seen to represent the letter vav. Pictorially, the letter vav is long and straight, like the lulav and the organ corresponding to the Yesod. The letter vav has the numerical value of six, paralleling the sixth sefirah of Yesod. By waving the lulav three times forward and three times back, for a total of six wavings, we actualize the flow of the Yesod. It is the perfect tool to fix clean and refine the Yesod-gateway of energy.
Aiming our secret spiritual weapon toward the six directions multiplies this flow of bounty into our lives. Also, it is the letter vav in the middle of God’s Name (Yhv”h) that connects the first two letters, Yud and Hai, representing the upper spiritual worlds, with the final letter Hai, representing our world. Once again, this hints that the vav-lulav-Yesod represents the channel that brings Divine blessing from the upper worlds to our world (“The Secret of Hashmal,” pg. 429; see also, Tikunei Zohar, 134a). We only need to open up this Yesod-gateway of energy, and draw flow.
The Maharil (“Laws of Lulav”) notes that the first and last letters of the Torah, bet and lamed, and the first and last letters of the Tanach (prophets and Writings), vav and lamed, make up the letters of lulav. This once again hints that the lulav-yesod is the central axis that joins one end of our holy writings with the other, encompassing the entire Torah. We see from this the whole Bible hints at the Lulov reminding us of its importance.
The Ariza”l points out that the word, lulav (לולב) has the same gematria (numerical value) of 68 as the word “chaim” meaning life (חיים). This is because of the life force that flows from the male principle of the lulav-Yesod, to the feminine principle of Malchut, represented by the etrog, which symbolizes the fruit of the womb (Shar HaKavanot, Succot, 5; and see also, Zohar, Pinchus, 266b). When we raise the lulav and etrog together, we unite the male and female principles of Creation in a spiritual unification, called Yichud. This unification of Masculine and feminine give birth to new spiritual forces for our souls and the worlds. We create the arousal of new providence.
This union of the lulav and etrog helps to rectify the spiritual blemishes caused by sexual transgressions whereby the holy, life force of the seminal seed was not channeled from the Yesod of the husband to the Malchut of the wife in the proper Torah fashion. Such transgressions include masturbation, pre-marital sex, forbidden familial relations, adultery and other sexual wrongdoing.
The Kabbalist elder, Rabbi Eliahu Leon Levi, stresses the importance of grasping the lulav at the bottom of its stem, and not in the middle, so that the hands do not act as a barrier separating the upper spine of the lulav (the Yesod) from the etrog (the Malchut). Rather, the lulav and etrog should be held together at the bottom of the four species, so that the flow of Divine illumination from the Yesod to the Malchut, stimulated by the waving, is not interrupted.
The three hadassim (myrtle leaves) channel the energy of the sefirot of Chesed, Givorah, and Tiferet. When combined with the two aravot (willows), symbolizing Netzach and Hod, all of the seven lower sefirot are united in a perfect unity. All these Divine powers are channeled through the Lulov.
Concerning the Succah itself.
The Succah has the energy of the Clouds of glory which protected the Jewish People in the desert when they left Egypt. The Zohar teaches that these Clouds which extended like pillars towering over the encampments of the Jews, embodied the all-encompassing flow of Divine energy contained in the Yesod (Tikkunim 148b). Again by the Yesod all the Energy flows through.
The Ariza”l states, (Shar HaKavanot, Succah 1), and it is recorded in the Mishna Berurah, that it is preferable to recite the blessing over the lulav, and to wave it, inside the succah. This brings about a powerful union between the all-encompassing aspect of the surrounding lights of the Yesod, the succah, with its inner aspect, the lulav. The lulov is a symbol of the spine which lies inside the body. Thus the succah becomes an electric power plant of high-voltage spiritual energy from both within and without, generating the supreme joy and renewal of the holiday.
Rabbi Avraham Yitzhak Hakohen Kook, the first chief Rabbi of Israel, writes that: “The succah inspires such supernal joy that it cannot be a permanent dwelling, only temporary. Light waves of joy continuously flow, one wave ascends and immediately, without pause, a second wave, brighter and more joyous than the first, descends and spreads.”
Rabbi Nachman of Breslov teaches that this supreme, climaxing joy of the holidays, attained in the mitzvah of succah, can only truly be experienced by the person who has rectified his sexual sins (Likutei Halachot, Laws of Succah, 1). “After Yom Kippur, when we merited the seal of the holy Brit through the rectification of the Brit and our prayers, immediately after this, we begin to build the succah, because the succah depends on Tikun HaBrit because the succah represents the Clouds of Glory, and those who damaged the Brit through sexual transgression were cast out by the Cloud.”
Even though the Jews were protected by the invincible Clouds of Glory on their departure from Egypt, the evil nation of Amalek succeeded in its unprompted attack, as the Torah records: “Remember what Amalek did to you on the way of your leaving Egypt, how he met you (karcha) by the way and killed the hindermost of you who were feeble in your rear” (Devarim, 25:17-18). Rashi explains the word “karcha” in its root meaning of “keri,” an impure emission of semen. Rashi relates that Amalek seduced the weaker Jews into sexual transgression, and when the holy Cloud vomited them out, Amalek pounced on them and killed them. Only those Jews who guarded their sexual purity were protected by the Cloud. So too, Rabbi Nachman explains, only a Jew who guards the Brit in sexual purity can experience the transcendental joy of the succah.
May it be the will of the Almighty that with our lulavs upraised in our hands, we all be triumphant in our war against the spirit of Amalek, which lurks in the impure cultures of the world, seeking to blemish our holiness.
Have a happy holy Holiday !
It is so pleasant to lay down and look up through the leaf roof of the Succah and see the stars !
Blessed is GOD that we have made it again to the Holy festival of Succot, a time auspicious for revelation of our righteous Messiah may he come quickly because the mercy of GOD is great !
GOD commands us to dwell in a Succah so that we can remember our exodus from Egypt. Remembering the “great hand” and the “out stretched arm” of great revelation by which GOD took us out of Egypt. The Succah also teaches us of the wasteful unnecessary nature of materialism. As during Succot we dwell in Succot as our ancestors did in the desert after leaving Egypt. They lived simply and had all that they needed. Such simple living allows the mind to be free to dwell on spiritual concerns. Such living can be compared to the manna in the desert. To some it tasted tastless or bad, to others it tasted as what ever they wanted to eat. It all depends on the way one looks at things. Many sages have went on self imposed exiles, To the extreme of Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochi Who dwelled in the cave for 13 years and reached the greatest height of Holiness.
In a sense a Succah is as ones personal mishcon משכן (tabernacle) משכן is Gematria 410 equals קודש Holy. The Succah is a very Holy place.
Indeed, the word Succah itself teaches us this. The word Succah (spelled Samekh Vav Kaf Hey) has the same numerical value of the two holy Names of G-d, YHVH (26) and ADONAI (65). YHVH represents G-d’s hidden supernatural power and the Name ADONAI represents the Divine natural power. The word Succah also is numerically equal to the term (HaElohim, G-d), as in the statement that we recite at the end of Yom Kippur prayers HaShem Hu HaElohim (HaShem, He is G-d). “He is G-d” is the Succah. YHVH/ADONAI is the Succah. G-d is the Succah and we are commanded to dwell within “Him” for the week. The Name of G-d used in the creation story is ELOHIM. The numerical value of this Name is 86, the same as the Hebrew term for “nature” (HaTeva). G-d is the author of nature, of the natural order. He created humanity and placed us to live in a Garden, not in a concrete jungle. G-d’s Name is often represented by the Hebrew letter Hey, the last of the four letters of YHVH. Add the numerical value of this letter Hey (5) to HaTeva (nature) and to ELOHIM (G-d) and again we arrive at the numerical value of Succah.
In parsha Shemini we are told that for 7 days the mishcon was dedicated and on the 8th day the presence of GOD was revealed. This is similar to on Succot we dwell in a Succah for 7 days and the 8th day is Smini Atzeret, a day of closeness. Or as the Ramba’n, peace unto him, said Smini Atzeret is “a day of binding together all emanations”.
Pesach is concidered our festival while Succot is said to be GOD’s. This reflects the idea that on Succot the arousal of Spiritual interaction is from below (by our Divine Service). Succah is a celebration of “real joy” from the spiritual gain of Ellul, Rosh Hashanah and Yom kipporim. It is the time to celebrate the blessing of our harvest physically and spiritually. It is an opportunity for us to experience our new spiritual garments. One does not really know how nice a garment is until it is worn.
The Ramba’m warns us that one’s arrogance, Honor of themselves or haughtiness can, Heaven forbid, prevent one from truly rejoicing to the fullest extent, becouse of this such a person is a sinner and a fool. Such must certainly be avoided as the main service of succah is to rejoice, especially on Simchat Torah. Just let go of your inhibitions.
Succah is a time of great joy for all mankind as on Succah in the Bait HaMigdash (Holy Temple) offerings are brought on behalf of not only Yisrael but for all 70 of the nations. Its written in the Prophets that after the Messiah comes even the nations will celebrate the festival of Succah. Succah is a time of bringing all mankind together returning to GOD. As Rabbi Nachman of Bresslov teaches that by shaking of the arba minim (Etrog Lulav Hadas Arovot) the nations become humbled and return to GOD. This service of waiving the arba minim is so powerful and important that the sages enacted that we should waive the arba minim all the days of the festival after the Bait HaMigdash was destroyed, even if they were only waved the first day in the Bait HaMigdash.
Rabbi Moshe Chyim Lazzato Teaches that by grasping the life force that flows within the Etrog (citron) that is closed with in Malchut of Asiyah (which is as grasping the whole world in your hand). You can also grasp the Nakavah, malchut of Atzilut (all potential will of GOD that is yet to be revealed). Through one’s Kavanah (intent) they can draw down new revelation from Arich of Atzilut (the source of revelation of Divine will) in to this world revealing what did not exist before.
The Bahir Teaches that a Succah is filled with Chuchmah (Divine Creative power- inspiration). It is this Chuchmah that gives us new understandings directing us to closer levels in the service of GOD, guiding us to greater revelation. It is further explained that the Scoch of the roof of the Succah is Netzauch (quanitity) and Hod (quality). According to the Quality and Quantity of our Divine service the Divine light is revealed throught the Scoch (roofing material) filling the Succah. GOD has left it up to us to illuminate the world we live in being a “light to the nations”. Letting them understand through our actions that everything we do is directed towards attaining life’s goal of unification with GOD by removing the dross of impurity that is brought on by nourishing the klipot (other side) in our thought speech and action. So that there can be more open revelation of GOD’s will in this world. Filling the Succah with light, as GOD’s voice would fill the משכן (tabernacle). Directing us immediately to Fulfill GOD’s will in this world with the arrival of our righteous quickly in our days.
Chassadim (powers of God’s giving are dat (knowledge) of Z”a (source of our ruach-emotional soul). The Chassadim are called “stomim” (closed) above the chest of Z’a are covered in the Yesod (gate way of Divine energy) of Imma (source of our Nashama-Divine soul of intellect). The Yesod of Imma is as a tent of “succah”.1
1Mhl p.5,sulam on zohar Chadash Vetchanon p.5