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The Wonders of our Torah………………………………………………………………………………..
May 31, 2011, 7:09 pm
Filed under: Gemora Sofrim, Torah

EDITED NOV 5TH 2015

Nitzavim and Vayelech are considered 1 Parsha. When there are two Shabbotot between Rosh Hashanah and Sukkos, we split them, however they are generally considered one Parsha. Thus, there are 53 Parshiyos in the Torah, like the gematria of the word “Gan” – garden, referring to “Gan Aden” (The Garden of Eden).

Did God give Moses a Torah with precisely that number of letters we have in Torah’s of today? We do not know for sure but we know that it was very close to that number.In the Torah, there are at most a dozen or two instances where a letter is under question. This means that the Torah text we have is over 99.99% correct.. How can this be as the Zohar Chadash tells us otherwise it seems.

The Zohar Chadash teaches on the Song of Songs (74d), that there are 600,000 letters in the Torah. In other places its written that these letters correspond to 600,000 Jewish soul roots.This is difficult to understand as the Gemara in Kiddushin 30a says that there are 5,888 verses in the Torah. Even if each verse had 100 letters, and a quick check will reveal that the average is well below that, the Torah would still have less than 600,000 letters

Our Torahs have 304,805 letters.

This can be verified by counting and is recorded by the famous 10th century Masorete Aharon Ben Asher in his Dikdukei Taamim. Now how could the Torah the Zohar is referring to have almost twice as many letters as the one we have now. We have ancient Bibles like the Septuagint (third century BCE) and the Samaritan Torah (from before Ezra) that are almost identical to our texts. This clearly shows the authenticity of the current text of the Torah we have now.

So Zohar when saying there are are 600,000 letters in the Torah must be talking about something mystical and not simply a letter count of the Physical letters of the Torah. This should be fairly obvious anyway as the Zohar is a kabbalistic book. I remember seeing this explain by the fact that some letters are formed from a composite of letters like we see in Safer Temuna that the letter ל is made of a כ  and a ו upon it. This probably brings us to the are 600,000 letters in the Torah.

As the Torah is the “Blue print of creation” its interesting to know :

Letters and Words counts in the Torah

 

Words

Letters

Genesis

20,512

78,064

Exodus

16,723

63,529

Leviticus

11,950

44,790

Numbers

16,368

54,892

Deuteronomy

14,294

304,805


Total


79,847


Letters in the Torah Letters  Lettersא27,057ל21,570ב16,344מ25,078ג2,109נ14,107ד7,032ס1,833ה28,052ע11,244ו30,509פ4,805ז2,198צ4,052ח7,187ק4,694ט1,802ר18,109י31,522ש15,592כ11,960ת17,949
Total

304,805

Great secrets must be hidden in these counts.

There is also the matter of  “chaser and yeter.” There are certain words in Hebrew that can be spelled with (yeter) or without (chaser) an assisting letter to give its vowel sound. The presence or absence of this letter make no difference in terms of meaning and pronunciation. Beginning in the 8th century, the Masoretes (those who work to preserve the tradition of correctly writing Torahs) tried to standardize the spelling of chaser and yeter words by recording them in their masoretic notes. Another matter involving the accuracy of our Torah scrolls involves slight discrepancies between Torahs where some words spelling is a matter of dispute. In the Torah itself, there are two major questions. Genesis 9:29 has a word that may be spelled ויהי or ויהיו. Ashkenazi Torahs have the former and Yemenite Torahs have the latter. The difference is between singular and plural and is insignificant enough to be lost in translation from Hebrew to English. Small as it is, it is still a difference. Similarly, there is a question in Deuteronomy 23:2 whether a word should be spelled דכא or דכה. Here, there is no difference in meaning at all. Over 99.99% of the spellings in the have never been questioned, variations are not acceptable.  

Thus less than one hundredth of a percent that is under question.

Now there may be no question at all for example a Torah based on an ancient tradition that was in the minority cannot be summarily rejected. For example, a Torah that has Genesis 9:29 written as ויהיו, based on the minority Yemenite tradition, cannot be considered unacceptable. While it should not be written that way, a Yemenite scribe who followed his tradition and wrote it that way did so based on an ancient masora. This variant may be one aspect of the 70 faces of the Torah and it is also correct.

Above we brought down the Gemara in Kiddushin that there are 5,888 verses in the Torah. Our Torahs have 5,845 verses rather than the 5,888 stated in the Gemara.

The Gemara also says that Psalms has an additional eight verses and Chronicles has eight less.

If we add Torah verses found in  the  Psalms and Chronicles, to the count of verses in the Torah then we arrive at the number cited by the Gemara.  

That Gemara in Kiddushin  also teaches that the vav of gachon (Leviticus 11:42) is the middle of the letters of the Torah.

Darosh darash (Leviticus 10:16) is the middle of the words of the Torah, and the ayin of miyaar (Psalms 80:14) is the middle letter of Psalms.  

Simply counting the letters and words shows that everything on the list is incorrect.  For the “vav” of gachon to be the middle of the Torah, the Torah would need another 9,667 letters ?

So what are we really talking about here ?

R. Yitzchak Yosef Zilber (in Shmaatin issue 43) explains that.if we count the small and large letters found in the Torah there are 16 of these letters. The ninth, the middle one, is the “vav” of gachon. The Gemora  is referring to the middle of all the unusually large and small letters in the Torah..

It is most interesting that there is another tradition concerning the large and small letters, from R’ Yosef Tov Elem. According to that tradition there are 32 such letters and the sixteenth is vav of gachon.

There are seven unusually large and small letters in Psalms and the fourth – the middle letter – is ayin of miyaar., just like the Gemora teaches !

 

Similarly, there are 77 instances of double words in the Torah (like Avraham Avraham and Lech Lecha). Of those 77 cases, the 39th instance – the middle one – is darosh darash. It is not the middle of all the words in the Torah but it is the middle of all the unusual double-words.  

Large and Small Letters in the Torah

1. Genesis 1:1

5. Exodus 34:7

9. Leviticus 11:42

13. Deuteronomy 6:4

2. Genesis 2:4

6. Exodus 34:14

10. Leviticus 13:33

14. Deuteronomy 29:27

3. Genesis 23:2

7. Leviticus 1:1

11. Numbers 14:7

15. Deuteronomy 32:6

4. Genesis 27:46

8. Leviticus 6:27

12. Deuteronomy 6:4

16. Deuteronomy 32:18

 Parsha Nasso   is the longest parsha in the Torah. It is has 176 pessukim. It is interesting to note that the longest chapter of Tehillim (Psalms,  chapter 119, also has 176 pessukim. Furthermore, the longest  Gomorrah is Baba Basra, and it has 176 pages.

THERE ARE GREAT  

SECRETS IN THESE  

THINGS !



May 30, 2011, 11:54 am
Filed under: Uncategorized

 

This blog 

teaches 

GOD’S SECRETS

There are

over 1000 articles

That is a

lot of pages

look in the

CATAGORIES 

CLICK AND ENLARGE THE IMAGE

TO SEE AND READ IT CLEARLY

I have been very busy writing books ,

sending them out

Building the Markava

and working the Divine Names

For the sake of Posterity

 I am going to put a lot

of scanned  “SECRETS” here

Here is  SOME 

OF MY  NOTES  FROM   Tefilot Ramcha’l

today is his hiyulla

, the day he passed from

the world, so his soul and

 teachings are more revealed 

on this day

enjoy !

 



DEPTH OF SPACE

 

 

 



BAMIDBAR and the Skulls
May 28, 2011, 7:00 pm
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags:

BAMIDBAR בס”ד

This weeks Haftorah  (The portions of the Bible God told the Prophets to have read in public on each Sabbath) begins “ And the children of Yisrael shall be as the sand of the sea that can not be counted or measured “ Yet right in the beginning of our parsha it says “Take the heads of all the congregation of all the children of Isreal by their families houses, numbering of them,  names of all the males by their skulls”.

Now it is known that a blessing does not rest on that which is counted. As the haftorah says “That can not be counted or measured “. At other times all Yisrael were counted by the 1/2 shekel coin each year donated to the Holy Temple in Adar. By doing this the people were never counted, only coins. But what about this counting of the people ?.  We learn from the Shalah Hakodesh in Sni Luchot HaBrit that blessings don’t rest on that which is counted when its measurement is intrinsically physical, being part of the material world. As such numbering by its nature creates limitation, but numbering in context of the spiritual worlds does not impose limitation. Numbers in the context of the spiritual worlds does not imply limitation as each such number advances towards great achievements. So here we don’t have counting as with physical things, but what we have here is as it states counting of “ gilgulatom “ (their skulls). In the Zohar it talks about the eminations from the “ gilgulata “ (skull) of parzufim (structures that emanate and reveal Divine energy). In this context  “ gilgulata “ refers specifically to the aspect of the  parzuf called Arich Anpin (long face), this parzuf is the place of emination and revelation of the will of God. Concerning the skull of  parzuf Atik Yamin (place where delight is eminated from) are great secrets which are seldom heard. Here we can find infinite wisdom. It was spoken concerning the skull by Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochi in the last moments of his life in a body on this earth at the idra Zuta. The final gathering of Rabbi Shimon and his companions of the Zohar. This we celebrated a short time ago and each year it is celebrated where he is buried in Maron with at least 400,000 people. It is the largest celebration Here in Aretz ha Kodesh. There shall be left in the land of Israel in the Time of the Mashiach 7000 people. These are the secret of  מ”ב   to their skulls. This is the secret of  מ”ב from which the world was created. And in the souls of these Sadeekem it is ruled.

From Rebbe Shimon we learn that the skull is full of dew, it contains a membrane that surrounds the brain and a atmosphere. To it is a beard of pure wool containing 13 attributes of Divine mercy. A forehead that functions as supernal will, a eye of providence that is eternally open. Nostrils of His nose to breath life force. The flow of chuchmah (Divine wisdom) is called scent. All wisdom of the world is from the nose of Arich. The beard is made of whats called dikna (conduits). When the dikna of parzuf Atik (place where delight is eminated from) are clear it illuminates the Dikna of parzuf Zier Anpin (Source of emination of the emotional soul) drawing down 13 passages of supernal oil (Divine wisdom). Then in the dikna of Z’a we find there are 22 tikuney dikna (conduits of corrective eminations). It is from there we draw out the 22 letters of the Holy tongue, 22 letters of the Torah and all creation.

So the counting here is more like a recognition of each Isrealite being set aside for his supernal purpose from the powers manifest in the “ gilgulata “ (skull). As the Shalah said concerning spiritual counting “Each such number advances towards great achievements”. Thus here Moshe is setting aside each individual in Yisrael by their “ gilgulata “ making them sanctified, separated and distinguishing each according to their distinct part in the Holy nation. As Holiness infers separation. So here moshe designates each individual of Yisreal destinguished at the “ gilgulata“ level (his powers, purpose). May it be from this act of Moshe designating each individual of Yisreal distinguished at the “ gilgulata“ level (his powers, purpose) there should soon manifest the complete energy of redemption. With the revelation of our righteous Mashiach quickly in our days.



OTHER WORLD ANYONE ?

 

 

 



HUMANITY INSIDE SPIRITUALITY
May 20, 2011, 2:30 pm
Filed under: Uncategorized | Tags: ,

BS”D

Bichukoti

In our parsha called “In my Statutes” we find not “statutes” discussed. These being the Biblical laws which defy human rational explanation, but what we find here are  “mispotim” ,  this is the category of laws involving social regulations. We find laws concerning vows, specifically when one vows a vow to dedicate something to give to Hashem.. Beginning with  a person’s valuation, then is discussed vowing a animal, his house or field and finally the parsha and the book of Vayikra (Leviticus), also called “Safer Cohaniam” concludes discussing miser, the tithe of produce and the herd and the parsha ends with the words בהרסיני. The name of last weeks parsha.. Again we see the idea as in last weeks parsha, that the social laws, “mishpotim” are essensial and fundamental thus they are delivered under the title called  in “Har Seni” . This being a internal aspect of the Torah.as its written “You shall love your neighbor as yourself; I am the Lord.” (Lev 19) , is the essential principle of the Torah.  

   But why in the beginning of our parsha does it say Bichucoti (In my statutes) when “statutes” are not discussed in the parsha. ?

In my Statutes” literally alludes to the commandments called “mispotim”. As Rabbi Bergstien once said that one must first express the love of their fellow men before approaching the True love of God. Once this is achieved one can ascend upward through the love of Hashem through the “chukim” (Statutes). This in the midst of the statutes are the “mispotim”, of as the marrow of the bone is where the blood is produced. This is enough for those who understand.

 

The parsha begins telling us of Blessings for observing Gods Laws and curses for their non observance. The Torah requires from us observance of Its “mishotim” (Social Laws). They being a revelation of love for our fellow creations and proper conduct in society. While the inner aspect involves the expression of love of Hashem , that is expressed by “chukim”.  “Chukim” are the major body of laws in safer Cohaniam, where we find laws concerning the service of  the Cohaniam in the offering of the Holy Temple..

But in our parsha “Chukim” are not taught but our parsha discusses vows  which are  of the group of mitzvoth called “mishpotim”.. Vows are fundamental to all, as all depends on honesty. As the Torah is called Torah אמת. Thus we see here that to be in this state of “har sini” requires complete honesty.  

One may think that if they say one thing and do something else it is no big deal but in our parsha we see many curses for one who does not stand by their word. So let us never forget ouR “obligations” and keep our “word”. The sages say that to not fulfill what one says reflects a lack of honesty. Thus we see how careful one must be with their word.

Being in “Har Sini” is being in Truth. To separate from this is to separate from life itself. Thus we see all the curses in the parsha. How much better is it to walk in truth. The Torah itself is called “Truth”. Then we can see the worlds of our parsha fulfilled “ You shall eat the old, and bring forth the old because of the new you bring out” with our righteous Mashiach quickly in our days.  



STONES
May 19, 2011, 8:11 am
Filed under: healing arts

This blog 

teaches 

GOD’S SECRETS

There are

over 1000 articles

That is a

lot of pages

look in the

CATAGORIES 

CLICK AND ENLARGE THE IMAGE

TO SEE AND READ IT CLEARLY

I have been very busy writing books ,

Building the Markava

and working the Divine Names

For the sake of Posterity

 I am going to put a lot

of scanned  “SECRETS” here

Here is  SOME OF MY  NOTES  concerning

the  hidden spiritual  qualities of stones

 and theiR physical benefits. The stones

in the breastplate have the energy of

all other stones:



32 PATHS, THE WORLDS AND THE HUMAN BODY

NEW1This blog 

teaches 

GOD’S SECRETS

There are

over 1000 articles

That is a

lot of pages

look in the

CATAGORIES 

CLICK AND ENLARGE THE IMAGE

TO SEE AND READ IT CLEARLY

I have been very busy writing books ,

Building the Markava

and working the Divine Names

For the sake of Posterity I am

 going to put a lot

of scanned  “SECRETS” here what

we have below is “SECRETS” from the

Safer Yetzera written by aBraham

in the Bible. There are revealed the

connection of the letters of creative

power with organs in the body.

This is really good for healing works.

The verses of creation that

encode the powers and divine names.

Their secrets in olam shanah

and nefesh (qualities, planets

constellations, times, body organs and points)

Also is a page on the 32 paths

with organ path correspondence.

Know, Shlomo ben Adret, the great Rashba, wrote:
“And I say that it was the kindness of the Supreme Being at the
start of Creation to create in his world things that would ensure the
health of the created beings, that if the existents happen to fall ill
or for any other reason deviate from their natural perfection, these
things are ready to restore them to their realm or to make them
healthy. And He placed these forces in the essence of things found
in nature, as may be attained by study, such as medications and
aids known to scholars of medicine, or in nature based on
properties but not attainable by study….. And it is not impossible
that such a power should also be in speech, as in the case of
amulets and similar things.” Not only is it not impossible but this this “stuff” works !

The Three Pillars are ש for Fire, מ for Water, and א for Air. We are not talking about physical elements, but spiritual one’s. The Three Mother letters thus take their place standing over the Three Pillars, they best exemplify the first three sefirot (Keter, Chochman and Binah; and alternatively in different instances Chochmah, Binah, and Daat). These three do not directly touch this world, as it cannot contain them; they are transcendent.

The Three Mother give birth to the creation of this physical world. The Lower Seven Lower sefirot thus become expressed by Seven double Letters (ב, ג, ד, כ, פ, ר, ת) have 2 sounds each and correspond in the physical world to shift sin reality to a consciousness of space and time. These Seven Letters also correspond to the seven days of the week, and seven planets (Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn).

The Three Mothers are the “mochin” (the brains), and the Seven Lower are the “middot” (characteristics) in which we manifest these thoughts and impulses through (such as emotions)

In the mystical Tree of Life, the three mothers are the three horizontal lines, the seven doubles are the seven vertical lines, and the twelve elementals are the twelve horizontal lines,

 

.

 

THIS ALL WORKS WITH THIS:

https://godssecret.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/scan0001.jpg?w=420&h=538

NEW SAFER YETZERA COMMENTARY

The Meditation upon the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, in combination with themselves and Divine Names, can produce ecstatic experiences and changes the nature of souls and the worlds they live in.

Knowledge of Language does not apprehend that which comes from it, for man does not apprehend the dimension of speech and letters. Rather apart from it, the letters ,there is no world . All the awesome worlds are given to comprehend, for every world is from a world that is above it , and they are given to Israel to comprehend. From comprehending the worlds that appears in the heart one may reach up until Ayn Sof. For there is no way to pray other than by the finite beings, a person . receives and elevates in thought unto Ayn Sof. The holy is the power of elevation.

R. Judah Barzilai in his commentary on Safer Yetzera said God ” created light and great fire for glory , that is called “Ruach HaKodesh” and is also called “Shechinah”, the dwelling of His Glory . Neither angel nor seraph nor prophet can gaze at all at the beginning of that great light . . . But from the end of that light the Creator , when He wishes , shows lights and sparks to His angels , seraphs and prophets .Sometimes from the end of the light there goes forth sparks and lights to his angels , seraphs and prophets; sometimes from the end of that light there is shown to them certain forms and visions and dreams or a visual image to whomever God wishes.

First is The breath of the living God. From this breath is all. Voice is by breath. By the voice is the carved out (powers), as the drawing forth of the voice is “penimi” By breath He engraves engraving is by voice and carving out is by breath by way of voice. Voice has substance and is אין A vessel Is carved out by breath itself. By breath are the 22 letters inscribed. The letters are some thing of breath, for from the breath itself the letters are are carved out. R. Judah b . Barzilai explains that letters are shaped in the breath. The letters are engraved and erected and overhung: there is that letter which is engraved as a kind of furrow there is that which is erected as a kind of wall. Engraving is the degree of carving of form that occurs at the level of the sefirah Binah. The forms that are engraved are the letters . The tongue is a חוק Tiferet is called חוק , חוק it is written : “It is a חוק for Israel (Ps. 81 : 5 ) . א is חוק elevating the rule and the exalting of Its crown.

Breath from breath, the second breath , called ‘Ruach from Ruach’ corresponds to Binah in which the letters are engraved . This Bina is the quarry and storehouse of the engraved letters. The power of all of them is in Binah. One should not say that they are something distinct from Binah as they are Binah. And breath is one with then. Water corresponds to the sefirah which emanates after Binah. Sefer Yetzirah lists the sefirot corresponding to breath , breath from breath , water and air , began from the second sefirah, Chuchmah, but sometimes we say Keter. Rabbi Judah Halevi refers in his Kuzari to the `water’ mentioned in the account of
creation as “hyuli”  (primal matter) and the spirit of God is the Divine
Will which wholly penetrates the “hyuli”, doing to it what it wills and when
it wills. Lack of form was called darkness’ and “Tohu”  and “Bohu”.  The Ketem Paz, explains that “Hiyli” was known to the Jewish Sages
and it was they who transmitted its knowledge to the Greeks (Ketem Paz 42b; 48a-48b). However, the Greeks only received a part of the teaching, which is knowledge of the lower aspect of “tohu” that they called “hyle”. Knowledge of the higher “tohu”, which is the sefirah of Binah, the  Sages had kept to themselves. Ramban in his commentary on the Torah considers “Tohu”  and “Bohu” as prime matter and form.  “Tohu” as Matter is a undifferentiated substrate, a matter totally devoid of any qualities. The Ramban says that “Tohu” is Power with out a “Reshimu” (Tracing , vessel). “Vohu also as “Tohu”  is power but is has “reshimu”. “Reshimu” is of the highest levels in the emanation chain of unfolding, proceeding from less to more differentiated through the levels of hidden, impressed, engraved, hewed and even further.  “Vohu is  is the differentiating element  which makes the thing precisely what it is. Rav Azriel, an earlyer Mikubal of the Gerona  identifies “tohu” as the sefirot Hokhmah  and “bohu” as the sefirot Binah. The Ramban considers “tohu” and “bohu” as separate entities meaning the prime matter and the form.
The Bahir says: “God made “Tohu” and placed it in Evil, he made “Bohu” and placed it in Peace, as it is written: ‘He makes peace and creates evil’ (Is. 45:7)”. The line and stones in Isaiah 34:11 were understood by Bar Hiyya to refer to a measuring line and a plummet –tools of a builder. For Abravanel, “Tohu” was thus associated with evil . Ramban explains the line as ‘the building in the thought of the builder’, whereas the stones are the actual building. In this he concentrates on the fact that “Tohu” is not in the state of actuality, it is not real, whereas “Bohu” represents the state of actuality, reality. The Bahir, goes even further to state that “Tohu” becomes “Bohu”. This is a very
significant statement. Bar Hiyya wrote “Bohu” is the form that covers “Tohu” and sustains it. Rav Bar Hiyya and the Ramban state quite unambiguously: (Commentary on the Torah, Gen 1:2) that the form that informs matter of what it is to be is called in the Holy Tongue “Bohu”, and this is a
compound word for “bo” – “hu'”(it is in it). Targum ben Uzziel characterizes “Tohu” as signifiying a state of lack of people and cattle. Eleazar of Worms expounds in his book Sodey Razzaya, that “Tohu”, that “Tohu” is “empty of anything good”. Again Abravanel also lacking perfection, deficient, even evil.

  It is also explained that the whole history is divided into three periods of two thousand years each: a period of “Tohu”, a period of Torah and a period of the Messiah (Tanna de-Vei Eliyahu Rabbah ). Likewise, when the world is “Tohu” and “Vohu”  the heaven and the earth were not visible as existing

The letters and sefirot are one unified structure of multiple aspects , which he calls faces within faces , הוית from within הוית . The structure is sustained by the action of ” sealing , ” which effects the delimiting the nature of divine abundance being drawn to the world. The Divine structure of the world is arranged in successive layers of being , one after another and influencing each other as “Twenty faces within four faces . . . it has 24 faces with in seven faces and it has wings within wings nested within the other , influencing each other. Voice comes out of the throat and vapor comes from the mouth and carves out the shape of letters.

In voice is the drawing out of the tone of the letters that are emanated and engraved , as it is written , ” The voice of God engraves flames of fire ( Ps 2 9 : 7 ) , ” the voice divides one letter into many letters through drawing out its pronunciation. Voice is inner , for its nature is very subtle , and not apprehend. Voice is the power of “Teshuvah” with it the letters are hewn. The letters have a body and a soul they are set in a fixed way in the head . In the breath are all the letters , and the breath is fixed in the mouth . For there is a distinction between the movements of the tongue and the movements of the mouth. for the vessel of the breath is the movement of the organs of speech that move with them ,and they have a fixed place , from which place it is impossible to move.

When the voice issues from the throat vapor issues from the mouth and hews the shapes of the letters , bent and straight ,speaking of the variable vocalizations of voice that composes speech. These variations are formed by fluctuations in a single letter to bring forth from it resultant creative variances in the letters. The voice is the foundation of the letters of speech which you bend in several ways many of which are included in a subtle voice that is not perceived by most people. Concerning this subtle voice that is not perceived Sadia Goan says “ There is no speech , no words , their voice is not heard ” (Ps.19:4 ) Voices travel from one end of the world to the other, yet the people in between do not perceive them. For R. Isaac the blind voice is not just physical sound, but the vessel of the underlying agency or intention of Divine aspects of creative expression. Similar to as the Rambam in Moreh Nevukhim describes the voices of the celestial spheres in praise of the Creator as non – verbal and says that the voices of the spheres are a higher level of intellectual activity than articulated speech.

Judah Ha levi in the Kuzari teaches that regarding the four letters , א ה ו ״ י., that these letters are as vowels to the rest of the letters and are as spirits , and the rest of the letters are like bodies.

The 5 organs of speech are according to Abraham Ibn Ezra in his Torah Commentary are the throat , the palate , the tongue , the teeth and the lips. Dunash Ibn Taeia teaches that the 5 organs of speech are the lungs , the throat , the palate , the tongue , the teeth and the mouth. R. Judah b. Barzilai identifies the 5 organs of speech as the lungs with the throat , 2) the lips , 3) the palate , 4)the tip of the tongue against the teeth , and the

middle of the tongue.

Rav Judah ben Barzilai teaches that The Holy One, blessed be He, created ten unique things , numbered in correspondence to the ten sefirot, and the measure of these ten unique things that have no limit . The meaning of ” their measure ” is from the term ” measurement ,” which is to say that the measure of these ten things has no end, and these a r e the depth of beginning and the depth of end.

Know that the sefirot are powers emanated by God and not God Himself. Within them various creative acts can be preformed. God acts within them as an artisan, forming and shaping and making all. The sefirot are in the letters. As the Ramban explains they are not the letters themselves, but their inner aspect. The sefirot and letters are as Categories of divine activity , activated through human cognition . They are Categories of divine activity humans can become involved with. Only some of the הוית (existances) in the sefirah of Chuchmah are are given over to contemplation, others are not. The beginning of הוית are the wonders with in Chuchmah. The 32 paths contained in Chuchmah, are the primary Categories of comprehension perceived as differentiates forms. From Keter are whats c a l l e d “Nativot” (pathways) . From Chuchmah, whats called sefirot, and from Bina are letters . The term describing the 32 paths as פ ל י א ו ת is describing them as wonder – inducing. from secrets hidden in Chuchmah come forth “nativot” pathways. The main road are these “netivot” from them radiate דרך (smaller pathways). The 32 “Nativot Chuchmah” are “wonders which cause wonder”. they are like strands of flame , which are the bodies of the f lames , that are pathways to the embers . The 32 paths are contained in the sefirah Chuchmah. They are the primary first perceived categories of comprehension that are as differentiated. These pathways of wonders are like veins with in the trunk of a tree , and Chuchmah is the r o o t . They are inner and subtle הוית which no creature can contemplate except that which suckles from it. R. Judah b. Barzilai teaches that The letters are the foundations of the creation they comprise the foundation of a building . The structure of sefirot called בנין , is the seven lower sefirot sometimes including Binah. The idea is the lower sefirot are contained in the sefirah Chesed , like “fire from water , they unfold from chesed. The stones themselves are quarried from an even more fundamental source , the mountain to which the sefirot are likened. 6 of the 10 sefirot are called the dimensions of the Holy One, blessed is He, by which all actions are effected that were prepared in potential from the six days of creation . The “measurer ” refers to Binah, which presides over the lower , measured sefirot. The essentiality of dimension refers to Chuchmah, the interior essence of Binah. R. Azriel of Gerona associates the term הוית (existences) , with the sefirah Chuchmah, in which the הוית begin. These הוית are the beginning of the causes of the separate entities. Rabbi Yitzchak the Blind quotes the Bahir saying “The quarry of the Torah, the storehouse of Chuchmah its quarry is the Holy Spirit , which teaches that the Holy One, bl essed be He, hewed all the letters of the Torah and engraved them in spirit and made His forms.” Binah corresponds with “חומר” Chuchmah with צורה. Binah is not itself “חומר” . It’s engraving letters within “Teshuvah” creates “חומר“. Carving is done by Sefirah Chuchmah. Even though the verse Dan. 10: 21 seems to imply that the forms of the letters apply to Chuchmah, that is , they are inscribed , none the less they remain hidden until they are engraved in Bina.

in Binah.

The י ו ד ה ״ א in the beginning of “Sefer Yerzera” Ramban says refers to the sefirot chuchmah and Binah.Keter brings forth the thirty – two paths. the letters , are divided in to 3 divisions :3 Mothers , 7 double letters and 12 simple letters . According to R. Asher b. David these 3 letter groups are associated with 3 names יה יהוה צנאות . Ramban also associates the categories with chuchmah, Binah, and the lower seven sefirot. Rabbi Yitzchak the Blind teaches that in Binah the הוית are engraved and by this is the power to comprehend Chuchmah.

By virtue of the הוית (existences) which are permanent essences engraved in one there is within them power to contemplate the subtle permanent essences which have no limit . הוית of permanence , on what ever level of “histasholut” they appear are the source from which all originate. הוית have a simple unchanging nature and never change. הוית (existences) R. Ezra and the Gerona kabbalists said the הוית were , the emanation came into being .

The reading of the 3 ספר ספר סיפור is writing , counting and speaking. According to R. Asher b. David the 3 letters of יהוה correspond to the the 3 “sefarim” in their entirety which is the full set of sefirot but as they appear engraved in the sefirah chuchmah. “Sefer” includes “sapir” and- “sapir” includes “sipor”. In R. Yitzchak the Blind’s Commentary. he associates writing with Chuchmah, counting with Binah, and speaking with the lower sefirot . R. Yitzchak of Acre adds that writing is Keter, counting is Chuchmah, speaking is Binah

The “tohu” (chaos) that existed before the creation of this world came from, was created out of the Spiritual element of Water. God “spoke” and the world came into being. God’s “speech” consisted of Him emanating creating forming letters from Spiritual Air and working with them, as an artisan, to build the world. Before “this- our Creation” God created other realms, the tools for, and the boundaries of Creation. The angels come from the element of Spiritual Fire.When we consider the substance of the separate intellects (angels) . There are angels which have more purity and radiance and splendor and cleanliness and completeness of intellect than other angels , which are exalted over their exaltation more than fire over the earth , until they are absorbed in the perfect light. The distinction between ” face ” and ” back . ” “Face ” refers to that which is close to its source or emanation , “back” to that which is far away from it.

God said “And you shall see My back, which is to say the beings from which I have turned away, which , in manner of speaking , I have cast aside , due to their remoteness from His exalted existence. The separate entities are affected by the extension of the letters that when Combined, coupled many times and weighed according to their “penimi” (innerness). Carving is more interior than engraving , and engraving is more interior than hewing . So, too , weighing is more interior than exchange , and exchange than combinations. Engraving is done in voice, drawing out of the tone of the voice the letters are emanated and engraved , as it is written , ” The voice of God engraves flames of fire ( P s .2 9 : 7 ) , Hewn in breath. The voice issues from the throat vapor issues from the mouth and hews the shapes of the letters. The position of the tongue, shape of the mouth, and the proportion of inhalation and exhalation shapes letters into “vessels.” Rav Eleazar of Worms describes how to permeate 221 gates, instead of 231, most widely used. He also says to “ always put the letter of the Divine name with the alphabet..” He also designates six of the vowels to a human limb of the Body. R. Eleazar mentions one method is permutation where only the first eleven letters from א to ל is permeated with each of the 22 letters. This is often referred to in the creation of a “golem”. To make a “Golam” one takes virgin earth, shape it into a golem, bury the golem made from clay in the earth, and bring it to life by walking around it while reciting the proper combinations of letters and mystical names of God. Walking and reciting in the opposite direction, in reversed order. The golem would become lifeless.

Rav Eleazar lists the combinations of 21 letters with each of 22 letters and their various positions. This gives 462 combinations or 231 (when halved). He says to obtain the proper combination, only eleven letters are doubled. Each pair of letters is called a “Gate.” Through these “gates” the creative Holy power goes out into the universe !The Divine names in the Holy Tongue are the “letters of speech” which descend degree by degree from the 10 utterances of creation by means of substitutions and transpositions of the letters through the 231 gates until they reach and become invested in that particular created thing to give it life. The most extensive version of the 231 gates is in Rav Naphtali ben Jacob Bacharach’s “Emek ha-Melek” it contains the tables without instructions. The main thing is the combinations of each of letters with each consonant of the יהוה, according to every possible vocalization. One needs to return the letters to their original creative state and give them power of intellect that issues forms in this world.

Also this method of permeating letters uses language to cut through its own structure and enables the meditater to enter a super rational state of consciousness quickly. By meditation on a biblical phrase through its transpositions the rational meaning is lost, and in the disorientation following the repeating of new meaningless phrase. one comes to see meanings beyond the surface. R. Azriel of Gerona “Commentary on Sefer Yetzirah” teaches that the forward combinations of the letters create and build. This relates to grace, face and “rahamim” and the backward combinations relate to judgment, back and “din” in the creation Half of the combinations of the letters of the wheel, are the 231 forward , and the remaining half, which are 231 reverse are above their wheel, since there are 462 alphabets and two of them are called a gate [sha’ar]…

Lessons from Safer Yetzera :

Hebrew letters and numbers are not just signs or symbols. They have a real “active” existence outside our minds and they are Holy. The structure of the letters can influence the structure of the world. The Letters are the basis of the power of the extended Divine Name of which the Torah is composed of..

The Hebrew alphabet has 22 letters, including seven pairs of the letters have the same shape but 2 different sounds determined by one member of each pair having a “Degash” (dot) in the middle. The dot changes the pronunciation, sound of the letter. These are the called the “seven doubles.” Twelve letters only have 1 sound, though a “Degash” (dot) does not change the sound of these letters but it does distinguish a hard of soft sound to the letter. There are called “Simple Letters”. 3 letters are called “Mothers” אמש. Three mothers are sealed with the letter “yod”, and those that are sealed are sealed in the “kotz” (tip)of the letter “Yod” When they are sealed with the letter “yod” they are placed in His great Name and compose a single structure. Elevation is sealed in “yod”. Sealing by letters of the Divine Name secure and protect the created world through contact with heavenly fire aroused through the letter contemplation. We find this in the ancient “Hachalot” writings. The 3 mothers are identified with the 3 sefirot Binah, Chesed, Pachad in the sefirah of Chuchmah represented by the letter yod of the Divine Name.

Covenants are made between God and man by the actions of his sex organ and speech of his lips. As these are tools of the creative process. To both of these is a type of circumcision. We combine letters according to the secrets of “Safer Yetzera” to “create”. The “combinations” of letters are formed by combining each letter with all the other letters in the alphabet. This yields 462 “combinations” (22 letters x 21 other letters). By eliminating all the mirror images (e.g., AB, BA), one arrives at the required 231 “combinations.” These are called in Safer Yetzera the 231 gates.

From “Safer Yetzera” we learn the physical dimension is bound by the six directions of the world. The spiritual dimension is bound by beginning and end by the moral dimension of reality. Know the Spiritual realms precede the moral (this refers to Torah Law), and both of these realms precede the physical. רום (height) is that which supports all. R. Judah b. Barzilai’s comentary points out that despite being lighter and higher רום (height) supports the world. רום is Keter. Chuchmah mediates the flow of abundance from the Ayn Sof and keter to all the other sefirot. Rabbi Yitzchak the blind in his commentary writes Chuchmah has a special role being “in all” and ” surrounding all” by which Chuchmah mediates and controls the ascents and descents of Divine abundance from above to below and from below to above. Also that which is sealed, that is limited from below by each sefirah, and elevated to Keter and Ein Sof is through the power of the sefirah Chuchmah. According to R. Yitchak the Blind Below is “Zaddik”, east is Teferet, expressing its middle position among the sefirot. West is Netzach, Netzauch transmits flow from the upper sefirot. West is that which is received. north is of Gevurah, south is Hod. South is Tiferet that is received in prayer and activates that which was given to it’s custody . North is that which is hidden from one who turns toward it. North is the dimension that has within it the hidden satisfaction of the will of those things which turn toward it . The “showbread” table is in the north , an allusion to the fact that it is “The table that is before Hashem”, blessed, is He. Who gives to each and every thing its need. And Hashem alone Unique and unified rules over all. North צפון is “loshon” hidden being (potential) beneficence presently hidden. North has the good of this world that is hidden because man has not the ability to grasp, work that will at the present time , but only when willed by the creator. Thus the good is withheld from one, as if it is hidden. A dimension draws from another dimension that is carved, and the carved from the engraved, and the engraved from the inscribed , and the inscribed from the hidden. North comes to South.

According to the nearness or distance from the root is its purity or coarseness.

For the nearer to the root and source, the greater its power and will and radiance, its purity and its truth in “Ruach HaKodesh” than that which is far from that place . The more the distance is increased , the weaker and darker it is , and the further it is from the spirit of intellect and the closer to complete corporeality .

The God sets boundaries to space by the 3 letters of יהו . He by them “seals” and sets limits in the six dimensions of space. These three letters of His great Name יהו build six extremities . For each side is sealed with them , and each side is sustained with the flow of blessing in them . Regarding this it is said I shall seal , like a person who carries the seal of the king in his hand , such that no one can harm him . So, too , each extremity stands and its sustained by the power of the blessing that is in these 3 letters.

The rava”d writes “I say that the Name אהיה and the Name יהוה, are all one Name. This means that the י of the יהוה corresponds to the א of אהיה , and ה of יהוה corresponds to the ה and the vav of יהוה corresponds to the י of אהיה for the י was upright and became bent , to inform that he who is bent in this world will be upright in the world to come. The Name אהיה refers to Keter, which is hidden in Chuchmah, and in all sefirot. In a similar way, Chuchmah is counted with all sefirot. Hokhaah and Keter are counted with all the sefirot.

In Job : ת ו ל ד א ר ץ על בלימה (He suspends the earth on nothing) . This is to say that the sefirot are all suspended in a manner in the word that is negligible בלימה

“They are all suspended on בלימה. The lamed is a letter in Chuchmah. י is in all . The מ and the ה become spirit from which comes the governance of their offspring. The letter lamed alludes to sefirah Binah, which is in the sefirah

Chuchmah, represented by the letter בלימה . ב all included in Chuchmah, which is the letter י , and י is in all , and the מ and ה become a power from which issues the governance of their offspring . R. Azriel teaches that, “ten and not nine” sefirot “Safer Yetzera” means not to exclude Keter from the sefirot when counting upwards and also means not to exclude Malchut when counting downwards. For both , “ten and not eleven” means do not include Ein Sof in the count of sefirot. The sefirah Malchut is sometimes called “Atarah” or “Ateret Yesod”. Rabbi Yitchak the Blind calls Malchut “Memshallah” (rulership), it gathers and includes all the sefirot above it, ultimately it being the rule of The “Ayn Sof”. draw forth the

flow of existence from nothingness.

Rabbi Yitzchak the Blind writes that Sadeekem in Israel , when they raise their hands in prayer , they raise their hands to the heights of heaven and their ten fingers draw flow from the ten sefirot, to bestow blessing upon us.

R. Yehudah Albotini teaches that all combinations of the letters are combined and permuted with the יהוה by this the whole of creation and all of language emanates. The letters of the יהוה are said to be the vowels of the alphabet. The letters יהו are the souls of all other letters as taught by members of the circle of the Special Cherubim, esp. R. Elhanan ben Yaker. Elahana.

For a fuller explanation of these charts, see The Creator and The Computer

More info -Isaac of Ako , R. Yitzchak the Blind’s Commentary called Kiryat Sefer,, R. Judah b. Barzilai, M. Ibn Ez r a , Arugat ha-Bosem,Ibn Gabirol , Mekor Hayyim,Saadiah b. Jo sep h Sefer ha-3Emunot we-ha-Deeot,Soloaon Ibn Gabi rol Keter Malkhut,R. Asher b. David, Sefer ha-Yidhud, Kabbala, R. Abraham Ibn Ezra , Perush hat-Torah,Solomon Ibn Gabireal , Tikkun Middot ha-Nefesh, Sefer ha-Yibud, Rabba lat R. Asber b. David, Solomon I b n Ga b i r o l , Keter Malkhut, Ibn Shuib time R. Yitzchak, Kabbaiat R. Asher b. David,Moses Ibn Ezra in the name of Hermes Trismegistus in Arugat ha-Bosem,Saadiah b. Joseph Sefer Yezirah.Abraham Ibn Ezra , Sefer haa-Mispar,Saadiah Gaon, Ha- Emunot-vha-Deaot,So l o s o n Ibn Gabirol , Keter Malchut,H. Padaya Pugam v-Tikkun,Asher b. Davi d , “Perush shem hamforash”, David Kiahi , Sefer has-gorasla, Yitzchak of Ako , “Meirat Enyim”, Abrham Bar Hiyah , Hegyoan haNefesh, Saadiah b. Joseph “Torat ha-Nefesh”, Abraham Ibn Hasdai , Ben ha-Malach we-ha-Nazir, R. Azriel of Gerona “Perush ha Kaddish” and “Perush Yihud Hashem”, action of Divine Names in Sefer ha-Azamim,Saadiah b. Joseph Sefer Yezirah,Dunash Ibn Ta a i a Persush S.Y., Solomon Ibn Gabirol

Keter Malkhut – girei haKodeSh, Eleazar of Worms Sodei Razaya,Seder Rabbah deBareshith, Abraham bar Hiyya Hegyon hNefesh, R. Azriel of Gerona “Commentary on Sefer Yetzirah”

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ANCIENT SPIRITUAL SAYINGS
May 15, 2011, 8:32 am
Filed under: PERKE AVOT

1. Moses received the Torah from Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua; Joshua to the elders; the elders to the prophets; and the prophets handed it down to the men of the Great Assembly.  They said three things: Be deliberate in judgment, raise up many disciples, and make a fence around the Torah. 

2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last survivors of the Great Assembly.  He used to say: On three things the world is sustained: on the Torah, on the (Temple) service, and on deeds of loving kindness.

3. Antigonus of Socho received the Torah from Shimon the Righteous. He used to say: Be not like servants who minister unto their master for the sake of receiving a reward, but be like servants who serve their master not upon the condition of receiving a reward; and let the fear of Heaven be upon you.

4. Yosi ben Yoezer of Tzeredah and Yosi ben Yochanan of Jerusalem received the Torah from them. Yosi ben Yoezer of Tzeredah said: Let your house be a meetinghouse for the sages and sit amid the dust of their feet and drink in their words with thirst.

5. Yosi ben Yochanan of Jerusalem said: Let your house be wide open and let the poor be members of thy household; and do not talk much with women. This was said about one’s own wife; how much more so about the wife of one’s neighbor. Therefore the sages have said: He who talks too much with women brings evil upon himself and neglects the study of the Torah and will in the end inherit Gehenna.

6. Joshua ben Perachyah and Nittai the Arbelite received the Torah from them. Joshua ben Perachyah said: Provide for yourself a teacher and get yourself a friend; and judge every man towards merit.

7. Nittai the Arbelite said: Keep far from an evil neighbor and do not associate with the wicked; and do not abandon belief in retribution.

8. Judah ben Tabbai and Shimon ben Shetach received the Torah from them. Judah ben Tabbai said: Do not make yourself like those that present before judges. When parties to a Torah suit are standing before you they should be in your eyes as wicked men, but when they have departed from they should be in your eyes as innocent, if they have accepted the verdict.

9. Shimon ben Shetach said: Examine the witnesses diligently and be cautious in your words lest through them they learn to falsify.

10. Shemayah and Avtalion received the Torah from them. Shemayah said: Love work; hate domination; and seek not undue intimacy with the government.

11. Avtalion said: Sages, be careful with your words lest you incur the penalty of exile and are called to a place where the waters of learning are impure and the disciples that come after you drink of them and die; and the Heavenly Name is consequently profaned.

12. Hillel and Shammai received the Torah from them. Hillel said: Be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving your fellow creatures and bringing them close to the Torah.

13. Hillel used to say: He who aggrandizes his name, loses his name. He who does not increase his knowledge, decreases it. He who learns not, forfeits his life. He who makes unworthy use of the crown (of the Torah) shall pass away.

14. Hillel used to say: If I am not for myself who will be for me? Yet, if I am for myself only, what am I? And if not now, when?

15. Shammai said: Make your study of the Torah a fixed habit. Say little and do much, and receive all men with a cheerful face.

16. Rabban Gamaliel said: Provide yourself with a teacher and remove yourself from doubt, and do not accustom yourself to give tithes by estimation.

17. Shimon his son said: All my days have I grown up among the wise and I have not found anything better for a man than silence. Studying Torah is not the most important thing rather fulfilling it. Whoever multiplies words causes sin.

18. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said: On three things the world is sustained: on truth, on judgment, and on peace, as it is it says (Zechariah 8:16): “Speak the truth to one another, render in your gates judgments that are true and make for peace.”

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Chapter 2  

1. Rabbi Judah the Prince said: Which is the proper course that a man should choose for himself? That which is an honor to him and elicits honor from his fellow men. Be as scrupulous about a light precept as of a weighty one, for you do not know the reward allotted for each precept. Balance the loss incurred by the fulfillment of a precept against the gain and the accruing from a transgression against the loss it involves.  Reflect on three things and you will never come to sin: Know what is above you –a seeing eye, a hearing ear, and all your
deeds recorded in a book

2. Rabban Gamaliel the son of Rabbi Judah the Prince said: Great is study of the Torah when combined with a worldly occupation, for toil in them both puts sin out of mind. All study of the Torah which is not supplemented by work is destined to prove futile and causes sin. Let all who occupy themselves with communal affairs do so for Heaven’s sake, for then the merit of their fathers sustains them and their righteousness endures forever. And as for you, G-d will then say: I count you worthy of great reward as if you had done it all yourselves.

3. Be careful in your relations with the government; for they draw no man close to themselves except for their own interests. They appear as friends when it is to their advantage, but they do not stand by a man in his time of stress.

4. He used to say: Do His will as if it was your will that He may do your will as if it was His will. Make your will of no effect
before His will that He may make the will of others of no effect before your will.

5. Hillel said: Do not separate yourself from the community; and do not trust in yourself until the day of your death. Do not judge your fellow until you are in his place. Do not say something that cannot be understood but will be understood in the end. Say not: When I have time I will study because you may never have the time.

6. Hillel used to say: A brutish man cannot fear sin; an ignorant man cannot be pious, nor can the shy man learn, or the impatient man teach. He who engages excessively in business cannot become wise. In a place where there are no men strive to be a man.

7. Moreover he saw a skull floating on the surface of the water and he said unto it: Because you drowned others they drowned you; and those that drowned you will eventually be drowned.

8. He used to say: The more flesh the more worms; the more possessions the more anxiety; the more women the more witchcraft; the more maidservants the more lewdness, the more manservants the more theft. But the more Torah the more life, the more schooling the more wisdom; the more counsel the more understanding; the more righteousness the more peace. If a man has acquired a good name he has gained something which enriches himself; but if he has acquired words of the Torah he has attained afterlife.

9. Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai received the Torah from Hillel and from Shammai. He used to say: If you have learnt much Torah do not claim for yourself moral excellence, for to this end you were created.

10. Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai had five disciples and these
are they: Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, Joshua ben Chananiah, Yosi the Priest, Shimon ben Natanel, and Elazar ben Arach.

11. He used to say their praise: Eliezer ben Hyrcanus is a plastered cistern which does not lose a drop; Joshua ben Chananiah — happy is she that gave birth to him; Yosi the Priest is a saintly man; Shimon ben Natanel is fearful of sin; Elazar ben Arach is an ever-flowing spring.

12. He used to say: If all the sages of Israel were in one scale of the balance and Eliezer ben Hyrcanus in the other, he would outweigh them all. Abba Shaul, however, said in his name: If all the sages of Israel, together with Eliezer ben Hyrcanus were in one scale of the balance, Elazar ben Arach would outweigh them.

13. Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai said to them: Go and see which is the good a man shall cherish most.  Rabbi Eliezer said, a good eye.  Rabbi Joshua said, a good companion. Rabbi Yosi said, a good neighbor. Rabbi Shimon said, foresight. Rabbi Elazar said, a good heart. He said to them: I prefer the words of Elazar ben Arach to your words, for in his words yours are included.

14. He said to them: Go and see which is the evil way which a man should avoid. Rabbi Eliezer said, an evil eye. Rabbi Joshua said, an evil companion. Rabbi Yosi said, an evil neighbor. Rabbi Shimon said, he that borrows and does not repay. He that borrows from a man is as one that borrows from God, for it is written (Psalm 37:21) “The wicked borrow, and do not pay back, but the righteous are generous and keep giving.” Rabbi Elazar said, an evil heart. He said to them: I prefer the words of Elazar ben Arach to your words, for in his words your yours are included.

15. They each said three things. Rabbi Eliezer said: Let the honor of your fellow be as dear to you as your own. Be not easily moved to anger. Repent one day before your death. Warm yourself before the fire of the sages, but be heedful of their glowing coals for fear that you be burned, for their bite is the bite of a jackal and their sting the sting of a scorpion and their hiss the hiss of a serpent, and all their words are like coals of fire.

16. Rabbi Joshua said: The evil eye, the evil desire and hatred of his fellow creatures put a man out of the world.

17. Rabbi Yosi said: Let the property of your fellow man be as dear to you as your own. Prepare yourself for the study of the Torah, for the knowledge of it is not yours by inheritance. Let all your deeds be done for the sake of Heaven.

18. Rabbi Shimon said: Be careful in the reciting of the
Shema and in prayer. When you pray do not make your prayer a form of routine but a plea for mercy and supplications
before G-d, for it is written (Joel 2:13), “For he is gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love, and relents from punishing.” Do not be wicked in your own mind.

19. Rabbi Elazar said: Be eager to study the Torah. Know what to respond to a heretic. Know before whom you toil and who is your employer who shall pay you the reward of
your labor.

20. Rabbi Tarfon said: The day is short, the task is great, the laborers are lazy, the wage is abundant and the master is urgent.

21. He used to say: It is not incumbent upon you to finish the task. Yet, you are not free to desist from it. If you have studied much in the Torah much reward will be given you, for faithful is your employer who shall pay you the reward of your labor. And know that the reward for the righteous shall be in the time to come. 

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Chapter 3  

1. Akavya ben Mahalalel said: Reflect upon three things and you will not come to sin. Know from where you came and where you are going and before whom you are destined to give account and reckoning. From where have you come?–from a putrid drop. Wherr are you going?–to the place of dust, worm, and maggot. Before whom are you destined to give account and reckoning?–before the supreme King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be he.

2. Rabbi Chanina, an assistant of the high priest said: Pray for the welfare of the government, since but for fear of it men would swallow each other alive.

3. Rabbi Chananiah ben Teradion said: If two sit together and no words of Torah are interchanged between them, theirs is the session of the scornful, as it is written (Psalm 1:1) “Nor sit in the seat of scoffers.” But when two sit together and words of Torah pass between them, the Divine Presence rests
between them, as it is written (Malachi 3:16) “Then those who revered the Lord spoke with one another. The Lord took note and listened, and a book of remembrance was written before him of those who revered the Lord and thought on his name.” Scripture speaks here of two. Whence do we learn that if even one sits and occupies himself in the Torah, the Holy One blessed be he, appoints him a reward? Because it is written (Lamentations 3:28) “to sit alone in silence when the Lord has imposed it.”

4. Rabbi Shimon said: If three have eaten at one table and have not spoken over it words of Torah, it is as though they had eaten of the sacrifices of the dead, for it is written (Isaiah 28:8) “All tables are covered with filthy vomit; no place is clean.” But if three have eaten at one table and have spoken over it words of Torah, it is as if they had eaten from the table of God, for it is written (Ezekiel 41:22) “He said to me, “This is the table that stands before the Lord.”

5. Rabbi Chaninah ben Chachinai said: He who stays awake at night and goes on his way alone and turns his heart to idle thoughts is liable for his life.

6. Rabbi Nechunya ben Hakanah said: Whoever takes upon himself the yoke of Torah, from him will be taken away the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly care; but whoever throws off the yoke of Torah, upon him will be laid the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly care.

7. Rabbi Chalafta ben Dosa of Kefar Chanania used to say: If ten men sit together and occupy themselves with the Torah, the Divine Presence rests among them as it is written (Psalm 82:1) “God has taken his place in the divine council.” And from where do we learn that this applies even to five? Because it is written (Amos 9:6) “And founds his vault upon the earth.” And how do we learn that this applies even to three? Because it is written (Psalm 82:1) “In the midst of the gods he holds judgment.” And from where can it be shown that the same applies even to two? Because it is written (Malachi 3:16)”Then those who revered the Lord spoke with one another. The Lord took note and listened.” And from where even of one? Because it is written (Exodus 20:24) “In every place where I cause my name to be remembered I will come to you and bless you.”

8. Rabbi Elazar of Bartota said: Render to Him that which is his, for you and all that you have are His, as David said (I Chronicles 29:14): “For all things come from You, and of Your own have we given you.”

9. Rabbi Jacob said: If a man is walking by the way and is studying and then interrupts his study and says: “How fine is this tree?” or “How fine is this ploughed field?”  Scripture regards him as though he was liable for his life.

10. Rabbi Dostai ben Yannai said in the name of Rabbi Meir: He who forgets one word of his study, Scripture regards him as though he was liable for his life; for it is written (Deuteronomy 4:9) “But take care and watch yourselves closely, so as not to forget the things that your eyes have seen.” Could this apply even if a man’s study was too hard for him? Scripture says (ibid.): “Nor to let them slip from your mind all the days of your life.” Thus a person is not guilty unless he deliberately puts those lessons away from his heart.

11. Rabbi Chanina ben Dosa said: He in whom the fear of sin takes precedence of wisdom, his wisdom will endure; but he in whom wisdom takes precedence of his fear of sin, his wisdom will not endure.

12. He used to say: He whose works exceed his wisdom, his wisdom endures; but he whose wisdom exceeds his works, his wisdom will not endure.

13. He used to say: He who in whom fellow people find no delight, in him the G-d finds no pleasure.

14. Rabbi Dosa ben Hyrcanus said: Sleeping away the morning, drinking at noonday, childish playing and sitting in the meetinghouses of the unlearned remove a man from this world.

15. Rabbi Elazar of Modiim said: If a man profanes things which are sacred, and offends the holidays and puts his fellow to shame publicly, and makes void the covenant of Abraham our father, and teaches meanings in the Torah which are not according to Halachah, even though he has a knowledge of the Torah and good works, he has no share in the world to come.

16. Rabbi Yishmael says: Be submissive to an elder and courteous to the young. Receive every man with good cheer.

17. Rabbi Akiva said: Jesting and frivolity lead a man towards promiscuity. Tradition is a safeguarding fence around the Torah. Tithes are a fence to wealth. Vows a fence to abstinence. Silence is a fence to wisdom.

18. Rabbi Akiva used to say: Beloved is the man that he was created in the image of G-d; an extra love is made known to him that he was created in G-d’s image, as it says (Genesis 9:6) “for in His own image G-d made humankind”.  Beloved are the Jews that they are called sons to G-d; an extra love is made known to them that they are called sons to G-d, as it says (Deuteronomy 14:1) “You are children of the Lord your G-d.”  Beloved are the Jews that there has been given to them the precious instrument; an extra love is made known to them that they were given the precious instrument of the world’s creation, as it says (Proverbs 4:2) “For I give you good precepts; do not forsake my teaching.”

19. Rabbi Akiva said: All is foreseen, but freedom of choice is given. The world is judged in goodness, yet all is proportioned to one’s work.

20. Rabbi Akiva used to say: All is given against a pledge, and
the net is cast over all living; the shop stands open and the shopkeeper gives credit and the account book lies open and the hand writes. Every one that wishes to borrow let him come and borrow; but the collectors go their daily rounds and exact
payment from man with or without his consent; for the collectors have that on which they can rely; and the judgement is a judgement of truth; and all is made ready for a feast.

21. Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah used to say: Where there is no Torah there is no culture; and where there is no culture there is no Torah. Where there is no wisdom there is no fear of G-d,
and where there is no fear of G-d there is no wisdom. Where there is no knowledge there is no discernment; and
where there is no discernment there is no knowledge. Where there is no food there is no Torah; and where there is no Torah there is no food.

22. He used to say: He whose wisdom is more abundant than his works, to what is he like? To a tree whose branches are abundant but whose roots are few; and the wind comes and uproots it and overturns it, as it is written (Jeremiah 17:6) “They shall be like a shrub in the desert, and shall not see when relief comes. They shall live in the parched places of the wilderness, in an uninhabited salt land.” But he whose works are more abundant than his wisdom, to what is he like? To a tree whose branches are few but whose roots are many; so that even if all the winds in the world come and blow against it, it cannot be stirred from its place, as it is written (Jeremiah 17:8) “They shall be like a tree planted by water, sending out its roots by the stream. It shall not fear when heat comes, and its leaves shall stay green; in the year of drought it is not anxious, and it does not cease to bear fruit.”

23. Rabbi Elazar Ben Chisma used to say: The rules about bird offerings and the rules about ritual impority of women are essentials of the Torah; but astronomy and linguistic numerics are incidentals to religious learning.

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Chapter 4  

1. Ben Zoma said: Who is wise? He who learns from all men, as it is written (Psalm 119:99) “I have gained understanding from all my teachers.” 

Who is mighty? He who subdues his passions, as it is written (Proverbs 16:32) “One who is slow to anger is better than the mighty, and one whose temper is controlled than one who captures a city.”   

Who is rich? He who rejoices in his portion, as it is written (Psalm 128:2) “You shall eat the fruit of the labor of your hands; you shall be happy, and it shall go well with you.” “You shall be” refers to this world; and “it shall be well with you” refers to the world to come.   

Who is honored? He that honors his fellow men as it is written (I Samuel 2:30) “For those who honor me I will honor, and those who despise me shall be treated with contempt.”

2. Ben Azzai said: Be eager to fulfill the smallest duty and flee from transgression; for one duty induces another and one transgression induces another transgression. The reward of a duty is a duty, the reward of one transgression is another transgression.

3. He also used to say: Despise no man and deem nothing impossible; for there is no man who does not have his day and there is no thing that does not have its place.

4. Rabbi Levitas of Yavneh used to say: Be exceeding lowly of spirit, for the hope of man is with worms.

5. Rabbi Yochanan ben Baroka said: Whoever profanes the name of Heaven in secret will pay the penalty in public, whether it be done accidentally or intentionally.

6. Rabbi Yishmael his son used to say: He who learns in order to teach will be enabled both to learn and to teach. But he who learns in order to practice will be enabled to learn, to teach, to observe, and to practice.

7. Rabbi Tzadok used to say: Do not make the Torah a crown with which to aggrandize yourself, nor use it as a spade with which to dig. As Hillel used to say: He who makes worldly use of the crown of the Torah shall perish. Thus you may infer that any one who exploits the words of the Torah removes himself from the world of life.

8. Rabbi Yosi used to say: He who honors the Torah is himself honored by mankind. He who dishonors the Torah shall himself be dishonored by mankind.

9. Rabbi Yishmael his son said: He who shuns the office of judge rids himself of enmity, theft, and false swearing. He who presumptuously rules in Torah matters is foolish, wicked, and arrogant.

10. He used to say: Judge not alone, for none may judge alone except One. And say not, “Accept my opinion,” for it is for them to decide and not you.

11. Rabbi Yonatan said: He who fulfills the Torah in poverty shall in the end fulfill it in wealth. He who disregards the Torah in wealth shall in the end disregard it in poverty.

12. Rabbi Meir said: Engage little in business but occupy yourself with Torah. Be humble in spirit before all men. If you neglect Torah many causes for neglecting it will present themselves to you; but if you labor in Torah then G-d has abundant reward to give you.

13. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob used to say: He who performs one commandment acquires for himself one advocate, while he who commits one transgression has gotten for himself one accuser. Penitence and good deeds are as a shield against punishment.

14. Rabbi Yochanan the sandal-maker said: Every assembly that is for a hallowed purpose shall in the end be established. But any assembly that is not for a hallowed purpose shall not ultimately be established.

15. Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua used to say: Let the honor of your student be as precious to you as your own; and the honor of your colleague as the respect due your teacher; and the respect towards your teacher as your reverence for G-d.

16. Rabbi Judah used to say: Be careful in teaching, for error in teaching amounts to deliberate sin. 

17. Rabbi Shimon used to say: There are three crowns–the crown of the Torah, the crown of the priesthood, and the crown of kingship, but the crown of a good name surpasses them all.

18. Rabbi Nehorai said: Go as a voluntary exile to a place of Torah, and do not say that the Torah will follow you, for it is your companions who will make it your permanent possession. Do not rely upon your own understanding.

19. Rabbi Yannai used to say: It is not in our power to explain the well-being of the wicked or the sorrows of the righteous.

20. Rabbi Matyah ben Cheresh used to say: Be first in greeting every man. Be a tail among lions rather than a head to foxes.

21. Rabbi Jacob used to say: This world is like a hallway to the future world. Prepare yourself in the hallway that you may enter into the banquet hall.

22. He also would say: Better is one hour of penitence and good deeds in this world than all the life of the world to come. Better is one hour of spiritual repose in the world to come than all the life of this world.

23. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar used to say: Do not appease your fellow in the time of his anger, nor comfort him while his dead lies before him. Do not question him in the time of his vow. Do not try to see him in the time of his disgrace.

24. Samuel the Younger used to say (Proverbs 24:17-18) “Do not rejoice when your enemies fall, and do not let your heart be glad when they stumble, or else the Lord will see it and be displeased, and turn away his anger from them.”

25. Elisha ben Avuyah used to say: He who learns as a child, what is he like? He is like ink written on new paper. He who learns as an old man, what is he like? He is like ink written on blotting paper.

26. Rabbi Yosi bar Judah of Kefar ha-Bavli said: He who learns from the young, what is he like? He is like one who eats unripe grapes and drinks wine fresh from his wine press. But he who learns from the aged, what is he like? He is like one who eats ripe grapes and drinks old wine.

27. Rabbi Meir used to say: Do not look at the flask but at what is in it; there may be a new flask that is full of old wine and an old flask that does not even have new wine in it.

28. Rabbi Eleazar ha-Kappar used to say: Jealousy, lust, and ambition remove man from the world.

29. He also used to say: They who have been born are destined to die. They that are dead are destined to be made alive. They who live are destined to be judged, that men may know and make known and understand that He is G-d, He is the maker, He is the creator, He is the discerner, He is the judge, He is the witness, He is the complainant, and it is He who will in the future judge, blessed be He, in whose presence is neither guile nor forgetfulness nor respect of persons nor taking of bribes; for all is His. And know that everything is according to the reckoning. And let not your evil nature assure you that the grave will be your refuge: for despite yourself you were fashioned, and despite yourself you were born, and despite yourself you live, and despite yourself you die, and despite yourself shall you are destined to give account and reckoning before the supreme King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He.

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Chapter 5  

1. By ten divine sayings the world was created. Could it not have been created by one? What does this teach us? In order to emphasize the guilt of the wicked who destroy the world that was created with ten sayings and the merit of the righteous who preserve the world that was created with ten sayings.

2. There were ten generations from Adam to Noah, to show how great was His patience, for every one of those generations provoked Him continually until he brought upon them the waters of the Flood.

3. There were ten generations from Noah to Abraham, to show how great was His patience, for every one of those generations provoked Him continually until Abraham, our father, came and received the reward of them all.

4. With ten tests was Abraham, our father, tested and he stood steadfast in them all; [they were] to show how great was His love.

5. Ten wonders were performed for our fathers in Egypt and ten at the sea.

6. Ten plagues did the Holy One, blessed be He, bring upon the Egyptians in Egypt and ten more at the sea.

7. Ten times our ancestors in the wilderness tested the Holy One, blessed be He, as it is written (Numbers 14:22) “Who … tested me these ten times and have not obeyed my voice.”

8. Ten miracles were performed for our fathers in the Temple:   

no woman miscarried from the odor of the flesh of the offerings;   

the flesh of the offerings never turned putrid;   

no fly was ever seen in the place of slaughter;   

the high priest never suffered a pollution on the Day of Atonement;   

rain never quenched the fire of the wood arranged on the altar;   

no wind prevailed over the pillar of smoke; 

never was a defect found in the omer or in the two loaves or in the showbread;   

though the worshipers stood pressed together, they could freely prostrate themselves;   

never did serpent or scorpion do harm in Jerusalem;   

and no man said to his fellow, “There is no room for me to lodge in Jerusalem.”

9. Ten things were created at twilight on the eve of the first Sabbath:  

the mouth of the earth (Numbers 16:32); 

the mouth of the well (Numbers 21:16);  

the mouth of the ass (Numbers 22:28);  

the rainbow;   

the manna;   

Aaron’s staff;   

the Shamir, writing;   

the inscription on the tablets of the Ten Commandments;   

and the tablets themselves.   

Some also include the evil spirits, the grave of Moses, the ram of Abraham; and others add the original tongs, for tongs must be made with tongs.

10. Seven marks characterize the clod and seven the wise man. The wise man does not speak before one who is greater than he in wisdom and he does not break in upon the speech of his fellow. He is not hasty to answer. He asks what is relevant and answers according to the Halakah. He speaks on the first point first and on the last point last. Where he has heard no tradition he says, “I have not heard”; and he agrees to what is true. The opposites of these attributes are the marks of the clod.

11. Seven kinds of punishment come upon the world for seven classes of transgression. If some give tithe and some do not give tithe, there comes famine from drought. Some hunger while some have a sufficiency.   

When all resolve not to give tithes there comes famine from tumult and drought. 

And if they will not set apart dough offerings (Numbers 15:20) there comes an all-consuming famine.   

Pestilence comes upon the world because of crimes deserving the death penalties enjoined in the Torah that are not brought before the court;  and because of the transgressions of the Torahs of the seventh year produce (Leviticus 25:1-7). 

The sword comes upon the world because of the delaying of justice and the perverting of justice; and because of those that teach Torah not according to the Halakah.   

Evil beasts come upon the world because of false swearing and the profaning of the name.   

Exile comes upon the world because of idolatry and incest and the shedding of blood; and because of neglect to give release to the soil during the sabbatical year.

12. At four periods pestilence increases: In the fourth year and the seventh year and in the year after the seventh year, and at the end of the Feast of Tabernacles every year.   

“In the fourth year”–because of neglect of the Poorman’s Tithe in the third year (Deuteronomy 14:28-30).   

“In the seventh year”–because of neglect of the Poorman’s Tithe in the sixth year. 

“In the year after the seventh year”–because of transgressing the Torahs of the seventh year produce.   

“At the end of the Feast of Tabernacles every year”–because of robbing the poor of the harvest gifts that are their due.

13. There are four types among men:  

He who says, “What is mine is mine and what is yours is yours”–this is the common type, though some say that this is the type of Sodom.   

He who says, “What is mine is yours and what is yours is mine”–he is an ignorant man.   

He who says, “What is mine is yours and what is yours is thine own”–he is a saintly man.  

And he who says, “What is yours is mine, and what is mine is mine”–he is a wicked man.

14. There are four temperaments among men: 

Easy to provoke and easy to appease–his loss is canceled by his gain.   

Hard to provoke and hard to appease–his gain is canceled by his loss.   

Hard to provoke and easy to appease–he is a saintly man.   

Easy to provoke and hard to appease–he is a wicked man.

15. Four characteristics are found among students:   

Quick to learn and quick to forget, his gain is canceled by his loss.  

Slow to learn and slow to forget, his loss is canceled by his gain.  

Quick to learn and slow to forget, his is a happy lot.   

Slow to learn and quick to forget, his is an unhappy lot.

16. There are four types of charity-givers: 

He who wants to give but does not wish that others should give–he begrudges what belongs to others.   

He who wants that others should give but not that he should give–he begrudges what belongs to himself.   

He who wants to give and also that others should give–he is a saintly man. 

He who does not want to give himself and does not wish that others should give–he is a wicked man.

17. There are four types among those who attend the house of study:  

He who goes and does not practice (study)–he has the reward of his going. 

He who practices (studies) but does not go–he has the reward of his practicing (studying).   

He who goes and also practices (studies)–he is a saintly man.   

He who neither goes nor practices (studies)–he is a wicked man.

18. There are four types among those who sit in the presence of the sages: the sponge, the funnel, the strainer, and the sieve.   

“The sponge,” who soaks up everything. “The funnel,” who takes in at this end and lets out at the other. “The strainer,” who lets out the wine and retains the dregs. “The sieve,” who removes the coarse meal and collects the fine flour.

19. Whenever love depends upon something and it passes, then the love passes away too. But if love does not depend upon some ulterior interest then the love will never pass away.  

What is an example of the love which depended upon some material advantage? That of Amnon for Tamar. And what is an example of the love which did not depend upon some ulterior interest? That of David and Jonathan.

20. Any controversy waged in the service of God shall in the end be of lasting worth, but any that is not shall in the end lead to no permanent result. 

Which controversy was an example of being waged in the service of G-d? Such was the controversy of Hillel and Shammai. And which was not for G-d? Such was the controversy of Korah and all his company.

21. Whoever leads the masses in the right path will not come to any sin, but whoever leads the masses astray will not be able to repent for all the wrong he commits.   

Thus Moses was virtuous and he led the masses in the right path, and their merit is ascribed to him, as it is written (Deuteronomy 33:21) “He executed the justice of the Lord, and His ordinances for Israel.”   

But Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, sinned and caused the multitude to sin, and so the sin of the masses is ascribed to him as it is written (I Kings 15:30) “Because of the sins of Jeroboam that he committed and that he caused Israel to commit.”

22. Whosoever possesses these three qualities belongs to the disciples of Abraham our father: a generous eye, a humble spirit, and a meek soul.   

But he who possesses the three opposite qualities–an evil eye, a proud spirit, and a haughty soul–is of the disciples of Balaam the wicked.   

How do the disciples of Abraham differ from the disciples of Balaam? The disciples of Abraham enjoy this world and inherit the world to come, as it is written (Proverbs 8:21) “Endowing with wealth those who love me, and filling their treasuries.” The disciples of Balaam inherit Gehenna and go down to the pit of destruction, as it is written (Psalm 55:23) “But you, O G-d, will cast them down into the lowest pit; the bloodthirsty and treacherous shall not live out half their days. But I will trust in you.”

23. Judah ben Teima used to say: Be strong as the leopard, swift as the eagle, fleet as the gazelle, and brave as the lion to do the will of your Father in Heaven. He also used to say: The impudent are for Gehenna and the affable for Paradise. (He used to pray ): May it be thy will, O Lord our G-d and G-d of our fathers, that the Temple be rebuilt speedily in our days, and grant our portion in your Torah.

24. He used to say: At five years old a person should study the Scriptures, at ten years for the Mishnah, at thirteen for the commandments, at fifteen for the Talmud, at eighteen for the bridechamber, at twenty for one’s life pursuit, at thirty for authority, at forty for discernment, at fifty for counsel, at sixty to be an elder, at seventy for gray hairs, at eighty for special strength (Psalm 90:10), at ninety for decrepitude, and at a hundred a man is as one who has already died and has ceased from the affairs of this world.

25. Ben Bag-Bag used to say of the Torah: Turn it and turn it again, for everything is in it. Pore over it, and wax gray and old over it. Stir not from it for you can have no better rule than it.

26. Ben Heh-Heh used to say: According to the effort is the reward.



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