Filed under: physics, QUANTUM MECHANICS, wonders of God in Nature | Tags: Natural wonders, Sacred geometry
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The delicate inner structure of a pentacene molecule has been imaged with an atomic force microscope a Single molecule, one million times smaller than a grain of sand, pictured for first time.
Scientists from IBM used an atomic force microscope (AFM) to reveal the chemical bonds within a molecule.
‘This is the first time that all the atoms in a molecule have been imaged,’ lead researcher Leo Gross said.
Dye-doped zeolite microcrystals*
A new class of materials for optical applications are the guest-host systems, in which a species of (sufficiently small) molecules is encapsulated into the “hollow spaces” of a medium such as porous silica or a zeolite, which is therefore called the “host” matrix. Such hybrid materials exhibit new properties that neither the host nor the guest molecules can produce alone. This is because the pores in which the guest molecules reside serve to impose order and stability that limits their motion and can even force the incorporated molecules to assume a particular orientation.
Hexagonal stones at Giant’s Causeway in Ireland,
The hexagonal fossil of the Paleodictyon nodosum, suggesting deeper systems of mathematical or vibrational order within the universe.
Hexagonal Close Packed (HPC) Structure
Another common close packed structure is the hexagonal close pack. The hexagonal structure of alternating layers is shifted so its atoms are aligned to the gaps of the preceding layer. The atoms from one layer nest themselves in the empty space between the atoms of the adjacent layer just like in the fcc structure. However, instead of being a cubic structure, the pattern is hexagonal. (See image below.) The difference between the HPC and FCC structure is discussed later in this section. The hcp structure has three layers of atoms. In each the top and bottom layer, there are six atoms that arrange themselves in the shape of a hexagon and a seventh atom that sits in the middle of the hexagon. The middle layer has three atoms nestle in the triangular “grooves” of the top and bottom plane. Note that there are six of these “grooves” surrounding each atom in the hexagonal plane, but only three of them can be filled by atoms.
As shown in the middle image above, there are six atoms in the hcp unit cell. Each of the 12 atoms in the corners of the top and bottom layers contribute 1/6 atom to the unit cell, the two atoms in the center of the hexagon of both the top and bottom layers each contribute ½ atom and each of the three atom in the middle layer contribute 1 atom. The image on the right above attempts to show several hcp unit cells in a larger lattice.
The coordination number of the atoms in this structure is 12. There are six nearest neighbors in the same close packed layer, three in the layer above and three in the layer below. The packing factor is 0.74, which is the same as the fcc unit cell. The hcp structure is very common for elemental metals and some examples include beryllium, cadmium, magnesium, titanium, zinc and zirconium.
A Hexagonal Snow flake alot more at the link below
A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal wax cells built by commercial and wild honey bees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen.
Revealing the hidden atom in graphite with AFM showing all atoms within the hexagonal graphite unit cells. Image size 2×2 nm2.
“A soccer ball has hexagons and 12 pentagons at the corners; the pentagons are essential to close the structure,” said Yeates, who is also a member of the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA and UCLA’s Molecular Biology Institute. “The Epcot Center at Walt Disney World has Spaceship Earth, a well-known dome structure composed of triangles that fit into hexagons, but on closer inspection you will find 12 locations where only five triangles come together; the same is true of the Buckminster Fuller-type domes in the desert and many viral structures.
“This principle of closing a structure by combining a large number of hexagons with a small number of pentagons to create a piece of curvature has been understood by architects, molecular biologists studying viruses and soccer ball manufacturers.”
Studies led by ARS biologist David M. Donovan have shown that enzymes from bacteriophages (like the one shown) can be used to fight multi-drug-resistant bacterial pathogens that affect animals and humans, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, also known as MRSA. Image courtesy of Michael G. Rossmann, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue University.
Image: The human red blood cell membrane skeleton is a network of roughly 33,000 protein hexagons that looks like a microscopic geodesic dome.
IPC (green) movements and patterning are disturbed in a Roughest mutant (right). IPC (green) movements and patterning are disturbed in a Roughest mutant (right).
Fly eye cell elaborate tissue patterns are formed by two cell types with complementary adhesion molecules, as revealed by Sujin Bao and Ross Cagan (Washington University, St. Louis, MO). Favored heterophilic attractions between the two adhesion molecules, they show, pattern the fly eye.
Patterning has often taken a back seat to fate determination in cell biology studies. “We’ve spent buckets of time,” says Cagan, “finding all sorts of signaling molecules that explain cell fate, but not patterning. We can make kidney cells [in vitro], but how do you sort them into a glomerulus? What we really want to know is not what makes a lung cell, but what makes a lung.”
An odd, six-sided, honeycomb-shaped feature circling the entire north pole of Saturn has captured the interest of scientists with NASA’s Cassini mission.
STAR OF DAVID CREATED FOR THE WHOLE WORLD TO SEE ON THE SOLAR ECLIPSE…..
At the end of the “Total Solar Eclipse’ the Sun created the Star of David for the whole world to see and this is no coincidence.
What makes it even more spectacular is that the 22nd July is the 203rd day in the annual gregorian calendar and it is the same day that the Star of David is created by the eclipse of the sun, 203 is also the gematria value of the words “Created” and ” Star of David”.
According to string theory, all of reality exists in (exactly) ten dimensions. There are four revealed dimensions (the three dimensions of space together with the fourth dimension of time) and an additional six concealed (spatial) dimensions. In Kabbalah we are taught that God emanated from His infinite light (through the process of tzimtzum–the “contraction” of infinity) ten Divine lights or powers (sefirot) through which He created the universe. Each of these ten powers can be understood to be a “dimension” of reality. This is the ultimate reason that the Torah chooses the “perfect” number system to be the decimal system (as is said in the Torah: “The tenth shall be holy for God”).
All ten dimensions are seen to be contained within the “point-string” . whose form resembles a tiny “string”) of the letter yud = 10. The letter yud is the first letter of God’s essential Name YHV”H (whose full value equals 26, the sole other possible number of dimensions of the universe according to string theory). The full spelling of the letter yud is: yud (10), vav (6), dalet (4). The two additional letters, the vav (6) and the dalet (4) themselves equal the original yud (10). The full spelling of the yud is thus to be understood as an equation: 10 = 6 plus 4. The 10 dimensions of reality divide into two categories, one of 6 and the other of 4.
In Kabbalah, the vav (6) is considered the “male” element of reality whereas the dalet (4) is considered the “female” element. The “female” principle of reality is “revelation” whereas the “male” principle is concealed within the “female.” So is the relation, according to string theory, of the 6 concealed dimensions of reality to the 4 revealed dimensions.
Kabbalah teaches that the ten dimensions of reality were initially created in potentia by means of the “contraction” of God’s infinite light, thereby resulting in the appearance of an “empty space” or “black hole” of “potential” being. Into this primordial “vacuum” enters a “ray” of Divine light, referred to as the “line” or “string.” The primordial string “actualizes” the ten manifest dimensions of reality and continues to emanate within them the worlds of creation. The initial revelation within the primordial vacuum is the revelation of light. In the words of the third verse of Genesis (the first explicit “saying” of creation): “And God said ‘Let there be light,’ and there was light.” This primordial light refers to the Divine ray of light that permeates the vacuum, the Divine “string.”
In Hebrew, the numerical value of the word for “string” (chut) is 23. 23 is the tenth prime number (beginning from 1). The value of “light” (or) is 207. 207 = 9 times 23. This indicates that every “photon” of the primordial light is in fact composed of a nine-fold string. In Kabbalah we are taught that one of the primary functions of the primordial string is to “measure.” Each “unit” of measure is in fact an individual string. From one initial string become emanated a multitude of strings which fill space. These strings “fold” in and out, “split” into two and our “reunited” into one. These stages most precisely reflect the imagery and terminology of modern string theory.
Another way to understand the 6 dimensions (directions) is according to the Parzufim (faces of GOD). . The six major Parzufim, into which the Sefirot are organized are Attika Kaddisha or Arich Anpin (The Holy Ancient One or Long Face) which is identified with the Sefirah Keter (Divine will and Delight), Abba (the Supernal Father ) corresponding to Chochmah (creative wisdom), Imma (the Supernal Mother) corresponding to Binah (Divine Understanding), Ze’ir Anipin (The Short-faced One) or Ben (the Son) corresponding to the Sefirot from Chesed (kindness) to Yesod (way of manifestation) and Bat (the Daughter) or Nukvah (the Female) (corresponding to Malchut). In the feminine Parzufim (The manifest Divine presence), the Sefirah Yesod is the sexual organs and the womb .
Sometimes Atika Kadisha is spoken of as a separate Partzuf above Arich Anpin, bringing the total number of Parzufim to six. There are also six secondary Parzufim: Jacob and Israel, which are aspects of Ze’ir Anpin, Rachel and Leah, which are aspects of Nukvah, and Israel Sava and Tevunah, which respectively personify the “Malchut” of Abba and Imma.
The Parzufim, like the Sefirot are components of the worlds. Each thing in the world is composed of the various Parzufim, which appear in infinite relations and combinations. Like the constellations in the sky, the Parzufim are continually changing their positions, and the procession of earthly events are a result of these changes’ The Parzufim also engage in unifications , Which cause the restoration and repair of the worlds.
Pictures created by the Hebraic sacred geometry form a picture of GOD that encompasses eternity. A picture of the nature and GOD’S flow patterns in creation that we may be able to grasp some what. The inclusion of the Sephirah allows us to think more rationally about the important characteristic of GOD as they are expressed in the past, the present, and future. This becomes a tool for contemplation and meditation so that we can grow in wisdom and understanding.
An interesting addition to the picture is the use of the compass to create the sixfold creation process. By using a compass we can draw six and only six circles by maintaining a constant radius. The first circle starts at any place on the page. Then the next circle starts at any point on the circumference of the first circle. This forms an intersection between these two circles. We start a third circle at a point on the circumference of the second circle and place our pencil one the intersection of the first two circles. Continuing in this way we would form a pattern of six and only six circles; all of them joined in a common center point. Then if we draw straight lines at the intersections, a hexagon would form. And if we draw straight tangenital lines joining two circles at a time, another hexagon is formed on the outside.
There are several basic elements in what some call “Hebraic Sacred Science.” The Hebrew alphabet produces a profound prophetic message every time Hebrew is spoken. But there is another branch, Hebraic Sacred Geometry. The a element of Hebraic geometry is the equal-sided hexagram. It can be used to demonstrate the acts of creations. For Basic Unit, Symbol of the Creator example, if we take the hexagon to represent the days of the creation, we will see that each of the six creation phases join together to form another day. A seventh created day and a seventh day is formed by doing nothing, by resting.
Around the seven days can be placed another hexagon which is symbolized by the Hebrew letter Resh. This super hexagon is the universal container, formed before all else, in which all other containers reside. So the entire physical and spiritual creation can fit inside the super container.
Transformed hexagon Lines drawn between opposite corners in the hexagon form another container: a cube with six sides. So by drawing three lines the hexagon transforms from a flat object into a three-dimensional one. This will play an important role in the Kabbalah Tree.
The hexagon can also contain two equilateral triangles: one pointing up and the other pointing Male and Female in the hexagon down. This becomes a graphical representation of the male and female attributes of the Creator. Creation is an act of conception, growth, and birth. Both the male and female life contained within the Creator are involved. You will see that the union of the male and female give birth to another hexagon: the symbol of a new Creator being. The two triangles form the Star of David within the Creator hexagon. And when that happens something new is created.
The Container Cube and the Star join to form a place in which a creation is born and resides. This geometric form Cube with Male and Female then becomes the pattern from which a Kabbalah tree is formed.
The view of the Kabbalah tree Creation cube is from the top-down and follows the pattern of the Hebrew alphabet. Starting at the top the first container represents the conception, process, and birth of knowledge: Da ‘ ath, that will be manifested in all that follows. This knowledge required wisdom and understanding and contains mercy and love tempered by judgement. From this knowledge of all that exists, life, death, good, bad, will come a product of tremendous worth to all of Creation. The Mother (Divine understanding) in the first container connects down to the “Teferet” Beauty that will come out of this Knowledge in the middle container where another conception, process, and birth will take place. The Father looks upward to connect with the Creator, Holy People wear the “Crown” and bring God’s Power into the creation process.
A hexagon is created by Metatron’s cube
From teaching of Sefer Yetzera
Merkabah Tree from the Book of Ezekiel and Isaiah
The middle Container is the time of the creation of the first heaven and earth, the physical universe, and those who must live in it. It is a time of incredible process where those who live in this Container are tested and tried to prove their individual spiritual strength and the importance of living connected to the Creator: “Parzuf Aba” The Father (flow of divine creative wisdom) of this middle phase reaches up and draws Knowledge from the first act of Creation, while the Mother looks toward the Future and what this will mean for the rest of Creation. The beginning of the Grand Plan becomes manifest in this domain and is represented by the second group of Hebrew letters. This becomes the first state of the highest result of the Creation process. By the merging of the Father and the Mother (Divine creativity and Understanding) A human become a Holy conduit for the infinate light, becoming a active participant in the continuing process of creation. This Creation is given the name “Beauty,” (name of the middle circle of creation.)
The interesting part of this is in the word “bereshith” that we translate “In the beginning.” If the word is parsed into two words: bere shith, the meaning is now, “I create six!”
Sefer Yetzera (The book of Creation) from Abraham Teaches our world is made of Six sides in the six directions. The letters Alef, Mem, Shin are signed in six rings and enveloped in male and female. Know, meditate and imagine that the fire supports water. He sealed six extremities. He sealed the height, turning upwards and sealed it with Yod-He-Vav. Six: He sealed the depth and He turned below and sealed it with Yod-Vav-He. Seven: he sealed the east and turned forwards, and sealed it with He-Vav-Yod. Eight: He sealed the west and turned backwards and sealed it with He-Yod-Vav. Nine: He sealed the south and turned to His right and sealed it with Vav-Yod-He. Ten: He sealed the north and turned to His left and sealed it with Vav-He-Yod. These are the ten Sefirot out of nothing, One: Spirit of the Living Elohim; two: wind of the spirit; three: water of the wind; four: fire from the water, height and depth, east and west, north and south.
Filed under: Angels, Beney Elohim, sons of god, Zohar | Tags: Spiritual entities
(do not pronounce these names)
Aza and Azael are the two angels who argued with God against the creation of man.
They believed that if they were put in physical incarnation they would be much better at serving God than Humans. They were wrong and fell to lust for human women and desires honor and power. Our sages of blessed memory have said that when the Holy One, blessed be He, created man, He created him in the Garden of Eden and commanded him to observe seven commandments. When he sinned AT THE TREE OF KNOWLEDGE, and was driven out of the Garden of Eden, those two celestial angels, Aza and Azael, said to the Holy One, blessed be He, ‘If it would have been us on earth, like man, we would have been virtuous.’ The Holy One, blessed be He, then asked them, ‘Would you be able to overcome the evil inclination THAT IS IN CONTROL ON EARTH?’ They said, ‘We can.’ The Holy One, blessed be He, immediately dropped them from heaven to earth and the scripture reads: “There were Nefilim in the earth” (Beresheet 6:7) and also: “mighty men.” As soon as they descended to earth, the evil inclination seized them, as it is written: “And they took them wives of all whom they chose” (Ibid. 2). They sinned and were deposed from their sanctity. These Angels were subsequently banished to the Mountains of Darkness (they are in India). Bila’am, a powerful, evil sorcerer who is spoken of in the Bible, lived during the time of Moses. Bila’am would travel to these mountains to draw all of his strength from the negative forces dwelling there. Aza and Azael, who rebelled the Holy One, blessed be He, caused them to fall from heaven, they were forced to put on and to live with the garments of the earth. They could not divest themselves of these garments AND COULD NOT RETURN TO THEIR FORMER RESIDENCE WITH THE REST OF THE ANGELS. THEY REMAINED FOREVER ON EARTH. Subsequently, they were seduced by earthly women. They exist to this day, teaching sorcery to people. They begot sons, whom they called ‘mighty’ and ‘giants’. The Nefilim are referred to as “sons of Elohim,”.
Kayin’s descendants walked the earth, they resembled both the celestial angels above and the humans below. THIS IS BECAUSE KAYIN DESCENDED BOTH FROM THE FILTH OF (do not pronounce) SAMAE”L , WHO MATED WITH Eve AND WAS AN ANGEL, AND FROM THE SEEDS OF ADAM. the descendants of Kayin were the sons of the Elohim, because when Samael injected his filth into Chavah, she conceived and gave birth to Kayin. Consequently, his appearance was not similar to that of the rest of humanity FOR HE WAS CONCEIVED THROUGH AN ANGEL. All those who descended from Kayin were called the sons of the Elohim, BECAUSE THEIR APPEARANCE WAS THAT OF ANGELS CALLED ‘ELOHIM.’
Even those Nefilim, who are the children of Aza, Azael and Naamah are called THE SONS OF THE ELOHIM.
“The Nefilim were on the earth…” (Beresheet 6:4)
These, appear to men in the form OF HUMAN BEINGS. And how, you may ask, do they transform themselves FROM THE SHAPE OF AN ANGEL TO THAT OF HUMAN BEINGS? As we have learned, they can transform themselves into all kinds OF SHAPES, and when they come down INTO THIS WORLD, they clothe themselves with the garments of earth’s atmosphere and take on human form.these, as we have discussed, appear to men in the form OF HUMAN BEINGS. And how, you may ask, do they transform themselves FROM THE SHAPE OF AN ANGEL TO THAT OF HUMAN BEINGS? As we have learned, they can transform themselves into all kinds OF SHAPES, and when they come down INTO THIS WORLD, they clothe themselves with the garments of earth’s atmosphere and take on human form.
“men of renown (lit. ‘name’)” (Ibid.) who made use of the name. What is the name? It is the Holy Name, and they used it, for unholy things.
When Joshua and the spies surveyed the land of Israel they came across Ahiman, Sheshai and Talmai. They were the offspring of the Nefilim (lit. ‘fallen ones’) that the Holy One, blessed be He, dropped from the HEAVEN to the earth, and they produced offspring from the daughters of the earth. From them emerged the mighty men of old, as is written: “The same were mighty men of old, men of renown” (Genesis 6:4). “Of old” MEANS they were present from the time the world was created and “men of renown” are Ahiman, Sheshai and Talmai, MEANING THAT THEIR NAMES WERE WELL KNOWN IN THE WORLD.
When the spies reached those giants, they put in front of them the staff of Moses and were saved. Due to this staff, they were saved. If you think that those giants simply left them alone, IT WAS NOT SO. The giants in fact came to capture them, but they put the staff in front of the giants and saved themselves. Rabbi Yehuda said, Moses passed on to them the Holy Name. Due to this, they were saved and survived (by the staff with the Holy Name).
Filed under: Economics
FDIC only has $52 Billion to insure $4.2 Trillion in Deposits
The coffers of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. have been so depleted by the epidemic of collapsing financial institutions that analysts warn it could sink into the red by the end of this year.
That has happened only once before — during the savings-and-loan crisis of the early 1990s, when the FDIC was forced to borrow $15 billion from the Treasury and repay it later with interest.
The government agency that guarantees depositors against the loss of their money in a bank failure may need its own lifeline.
The FDIC on Thursday will disclose how much is left in its insurance fund, and update the number of banks on its list of troubled institutions. That number shot up to 305 in the first quarter — the highest since 1994 and up from 252 late last year.
FDIC Chairman Sheila Bair may also use the quarterly briefing to discuss how the agency plans to shore up its accounts.
March 4 (Bloomberg) — Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. Chairman Sheila Bair said the fund it uses to protect customer deposits at U.S. banks could dry up amid a surge in bank failures, as she responded to an industry outcry against new fees approved by the agency.
“Without these assessments, the deposit insurance fund could become insolvent this year,” Bair wrote in a March 2 letter to the industry. U.S. community banks plan to flood the FDIC with about 5,000 letters in protest of the fees, according to a trade group.
“A large number” of bank failures may occur through 2010 because of “rapidly deteriorating economic conditions,” Bair said in the letter. “Without substantial amounts of additional assessment revenue in the near future, current projections indicate that the fund balance will approach zero or even become negative.”
The FDIC last week approved a one-time “emergency” fee and other assessment increases on the industry to rebuild a fund to repay customers for deposits of as much as $250,000 when a bank fails. The fees, opposed by the industry, may generate $27 billion this year after the fund fell to $18.9 billion in the fourth quarter from $34.6 billion in the previous period, the FDIC said.
The fund, which lost $33.5 billion in 2008, was drained by 25 bank failures last year. Sixteen banks have failed so far this year, further straining the fund.
Smaller banks are outraged over the one-time fee, which could wipe out 50 percent to 100 percent of a bank’s 2009 earnings, Camden Fine, president of the Independent Community Bankers of America, said yesterday in a telephone interview.
“I’ve never seen emotions like this,” said Fine, adding that he’s received more than 1,000 e-mails and telephone messages from angry bankers.
The approximately $41 billion in reserves that the US banks used to have on their books are now provided by the Term Auction Credit (TAF) to the tune of $60 Billion, without which the banks would be insolvent: when the run on banks begins, only 1 customer in 20 may get some money, if lucky…
The FDIC Bad Joke: only $52 Billion Fund – not all of it liquid and available – to PROTECT/INSURE $4.2 Trillion Deposits = 1.22% Ratio, or 1.2 cents on the Dollar…
The FDIC may protect your deposits in times of average financial failures, BUT don’t count on it in the expected Financial Melt-Down: for more information, click on the 2007 FDIC Annual Report in the link below…
The article on the inadequacy of the FDIC reserves linked below uses older figures, but its conclusion could not be any clearer…
“The bottom line is this: your bank accounts are insured unless there is a banking crisis. Then, you must hope for the best.”
There truly is very little now separating your money on bank deposits or in brokerage accounts and the Abyss that will open wide when the first Banks officially go belly up, since they’re now mostly insolvent and the FDIC will be useless…
Federal Reserve Fraud only a fantastic story. There certainly is fraud involved, though it is not the kind normally associated with the word fraud. The Federal Reserve Banks play by all the rules. They may bend the rules from time to time, but they certainly do not break them. There is no need to break the rules when you make the money and the rules !
In a letter to Thomas Jefferson in 1787, John Adams wrote: “All the perplexities, confusion, and distress in America arise, not from defects of the Constitution, not from want of honor or virtue, so much as from downright ignorance of the nature of coin, credit and circulation.”
It was Daniel Webster who said; “Of all the contrivances devised for cheating the laboring classes of mankind, none has been more effective than that which deludes him with paper money.”
Rep. Louis T. McFadden (R. Pa.) rose from office boy to become cashier and then President of the First National Bank in Canton Ohio. For 12 years he served as Chairman of the Committee on Banking and Currency, making him one of the foremost financial authorities in America. He fought continuously for fiscal integrity and a return to constitutional government (Reference 1). The following are portions of Rep. McFadden’s speech, quoted from the Congressional Record, pages 12595-12603:
“THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD, A GOVERNMENT BOARD, HAS CHEATED THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES OUT OF ENOUGH MONEY TO PAY THE NATIONAL DEBT. The depredations and the iniquities of the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve banks acting together have cost this country ENOUGH MONEY TO PAY THE NATIONAL DEBT SEVERAL TIMES OVER.”
About the Federal Reserve banks, Rep. McFadden said, “They are private credit monopolies which prey upon the people of the United States for the benefit of themselves and their foreign customers; foreign and domestic speculators and swindlers; the rich and predatory money lenders. This is an era of economic misery and for the reasons that caused that misery, the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve banks are fully liable.”
On the subject of media control he state, “Half a million dollars was spent on one part of the propaganda organized by those same European bankers for the purpose of misleading public opinion in regard to it.”
Rep. McFadden continued, “Every effort has been made by the Federal Reserve Board to conceal its power but the truth is the Federal Reserve Board has USURPED THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES. IT CONTROLS EVERYTHING HERE AND IT CONTROLS ALL OUR FOREIGN RELATIONS. IT MAKES AND BREAKS GOVERNMENTS AT WILL. No man and no body of men is more entrenched in power than the arrogant credit monopoly which operates the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve banks. These evil-doers have robbed this country of more than enough money to pay the national debt. What the Government has permitted the Federal Reserve Board to steal from the people should now be restored to the people.”
“Our people’s money to the extent of $1,200,000,000 has within the last few months been shipped abroad to redeem Federal Reserve Notes and to pay other gambling debts of the traitorous Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve banks. The greater part of our monetary stock has been shipped to foreigners. Why should we promise to pay the debts of foreigners to foreigners? Why should American Farmers and wage earners add millions of foreigners to the number of their dependents? Why should the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve banks be permitted to finance our competitors in all parts of the world?” Rep. McFadden asked.
“The Federal Reserve Act should be repealed and the Federal Reserve banks, having violated their charters, should be liquidated immediately. FAITHLESS GOVERNMENT OFFICERS WHO HAVE VIOLATED THEIR OATHS SHOULD BE IMPEACHED AND BROUGHT TO TRIAL”, Rep. McFadden concluded (Reference 1, contains an entire chapter on Rep. McFadden’s speech).
By law (check the Congressional record), we can buy back the FED for the original investment of the FED’s 300 shareholders, which is $450 million (Reference 1, P. 227, Reference 17, P. 36). If each taxpayer paid $25, we could buy back the FED and all the profit would flow into the U.S. Treasury. In other words, by Congress allowing the constitutionally illegal FED to continue, much of your taxes go to the shareholders of the FED and their bankers. Note: The people who enacted the FED started the IRS, within months of the FED’s inception. The FED buys U.S. debt with money they printed from nothing, then charges the U.S. taxpayers interest. The government had to create income tax to pay the interest expense to the FED’s shareholders, but the income tax was never legally passed (Reference 20 shows details, state-by-state why it was not legally passed). The FED is illegal, per Article 1, Section 8 of the United States Constitution. Not one state legally ratified the 16th Amendment making income tax legal. Currently, fewer and fewer Americans are being convicted for refusal to pay income taxes. In IRS jury trials, the jury, by law, must decide if the law is just. If taxpayers do not believe the law is just, the jury may declare the accused innocent. Judges are legally bound to inform juries of their right to determine the fairness of a law. Judges often do not disclose this information so they can control the court outcome. Luckily, more and more citizens are becoming informed. If one juror feels the law is unfair, they can find the defendant innocent (Reference 19). In Utah, the IRS quit prosecuting taxpayers because jurors verdict is not guilty. Please tell your friends and sit in the next jury.
If we eliminate the FED and uphold the Constitution, we could balance the budget and cut personal income tax to almost nothing. In Congressional hearings on September 30, 1941, FED Chairman Eccles admitted that the FED creates new money from thin air (printing press), and loans it back to us at interest (Reference 17, P. 93). On June 6, 1960, FED President Mr. Allen admitted essentially the same thing (Reference 22, P. 164). If you or I did this we would go to jail.
It is time to abolish the FED! Tell your friends the truth and win America back. We don’t even need to buy back the FED. We only need to print money the way the Constitution requires, not the new proposed international money. We want to keep our sovereignty and print real U.S. money. Why has Congress allowed the FED to continue? If a Congressperson tries to abolish the FED, the banks fund the Congressperson’s opponent in the next election (Reference 17, P. 35). The new Congressperson will obviously support the FED. When Congresspeople retire, political campaign funds are not taxed. Get elected and be a millionaire if you vote right. By the way, the profit of the FED is not taxed either (Reference 1, 9). Once America understands, and takes action, Congresspeople will then gladly abolish the FED. In 1992, Illinois Congressman Crane introduced a bill, co-sponsored by 40 other Congressman, to audit the FED. This is a step in the right direction.
America is a great nation. As “We the People” become informed, the media and Congress will be forced to buy back the FED, balance the budget, significantly cut taxes, and stop allowing bribes to determine voting strategies. I have already heard from politicians who claim they will change their platform to include abolishing the FED if enough people become informed. IT IS UP TO YOU TO INFORM THE PEOPLE.
The FED hopes you will be passive and not act on this information. We believe in grass roots America – we are waking up America. Ultimately, the battle plan is to inform all Americans and demand change in the media and Congress. True Americans should run for office and throw out the politicians who allow this fraud to continue. Congress may refuse to deal with this issue. That’s why each person needs to go to their local county/state government with the proper paperwork and ask them to abolish the FED. With the proper documents, they are legally obligated to do it. WE NEED LEADERS TO BEGIN THIS ACTION. WILL YOU HELP?
“Government spending is always a “tax” burden on the American people and is never equally or fairly distributed. The poor and low-middle income workers always suffer the most from the deceitful tax of inflation and borrowing.”
—Congressman Ron Paul
All of a sudden, Congress is paying close attention to Ron Paul.
The feisty congressman from Texas, whose insurgent “Ron Paul Revolution” presidential campaign rankled Republican leaders last year, now has the GOP House leadership on his side — backing a measure that generated paltry support when he first introduced it 26 years ago.
Paul, as of Tuesday, has won 245 co-sponsors to a bill that would require a full-fledged audit of the Federal Reserve by the end of 2010.
Paul attracted just 18 co-sponsors when he authored a similar bill, which died, in 1983. While the impact Fed policies have on inflation is once again a concern, fears about loose monetary policy and excessive federal spending appear even more widespread in 2009.
“In the past, I never got much support, but I think it’s the financial crisis obviously that’s drawing so much attention to it, and people want to know more about the Federal Reserve,” Paul told FOXNews.com.
With the Federal Reserve holding interest rates at rock-bottom levels, pumping trillions into the economy and now poised to have new powers to oversee the financial system under President Obama’s proposed regulatory overhaul, Paul said lawmakers want transparency.
“If they give them a lot more power and there’s no more transparency, that’ll be a disaster,” he said.
The bill would call for the comptroller general in the Government Accountability Office to audit the Fed and report those findings to Congress. The GAO’s ability to conduct such audits now is severely restricted.
A slew of top Republicans are backing the bill, as are many Democrats.
“Ron Paul has the right idea on this,” said Sen. Jim DeMint, R-S.C., who supports similar legislation in the Senate. “I’m just hoping we can get a clear audit. … We need to know what they’re up to.”
House Republican Leader John Boehner, who signed on as a co-sponsor this month, wrote in a recent blog post that the “lack of transparency and accountability” regarding federal dollars committed by the Fed and Treasury Department raise “serious concerns” and make an audit critical.
“The Federal Reserve Transparency Act would remove all of these restrictions, and allow GAO to get real answers from the Federal Reserve to protect American taxpayers,” Boehner wrote.
Unfortunately for Paul, the bill appears to be idling in the House Financial Services Committee, which is chaired by Barney Frank, D-Mass. The bill has been sitting there, gathering co-sponsors, since Paul introduced it in late February.
“You’ve kind of got to rely on the Democratic leadership (to move the bill along),” a Boehner aide said. “I haven’t heard a lot of support from Chairman Frank.”
Calls to Frank’s office were not returned.
Paul acknowledged that his bill hasn’t advanced but said Frank has “promised” him he will deal with his bill and is willing to give it a hearing. Paul said it’s easily got the “momentum” to pass the full House.
A representative with the Federal Reserve could not be reached for comment.
Among the many things discussed Friday night, March 27 at the opening gala in St. Louis, Missouri, was the Missouri Information Awareness Centers’s (MIAC) publication issued to the Missouri State Police placing Ron Paul supporters in the same category as terrorists. The principles of freedom and liberty were also discussed heavily, along with the need for more awareness of issues and a push to audit the Federal Reserve, which is neither Federal nor is there a Reserve. The free event was open to the general public and had an array of speakers, focused on issues important to promote freedom.
The Federal Reserve prefers internal audits
Oversight of the Federal Reserve System
The Federal Reserve System–including the Board of Governors and the 12 Federal Reserve Banks–is subject to a number of levels of oversight to help ensure that the System operates as a prudent, well managed, and effective public organization.
The Federal Reserve is subject to oversight by Congress. Board governors and staff testify before Congress frequently to discuss issues within the Federal Reserve’s purview. For example, in 2008, governors and Board staff testified 35 times before Congress. During the first quarter of 2009, governors and staff have testified 12 times. Board staff also meet with Congressional staff to brief them on topics related to the Federal Reserve’s operations and future direction.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) has broad authority to review and audit Federal Reserve activities.1 The legislative limits on the GAO’s access to the Federal Reserve System are very specific and stated in the law.2 The GAO conducts reviews and audits at the direction of the Congress and also under its own authority. These engagements cover a wide variety of Federal Reserve activities. As of March 31, 2009, there were 20 GAO engagements underway, 17 of which were initiated by Congress. During 2008, the GAO completed 15 similar engagements.
The Board of Governors orders an annual external audit of the financial statements of the Board and the Reserve Banks.3 The current independent auditor is Deloitte and Touche.4 Each Reserve Bank publishes its audited financial statements, and the Board of Governors publishes the audited combined Reserve Bank financial statements and the Board’s financial statements in its annual report to Congress. The Reserve Banks and the Board comply voluntarily with the internal control requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The external auditors also perform an evaluation of internal controls over financial reporting.
Oversight of the Board of Governors
Consistent with the Inspector General Act, the Board of Governors’ Office of Inspector General (OIG) conducts and supervises independent and objective audits, investigations, and other reviews of Board programs and operations to promote economy, efficiency, and effectiveness, and to prevent and detect fraud, waste, and abuse. The OIG’s work spans the Board’s mission areas. As of March 31, 2009, the OIG had initiated 12 audits and evaluations, 5 investigations, and numerous law and regulation reviews; responded to a number of hotline calls, emails, and correspondence; and followed up on open recommendations. During 2008, the OIG completed 15 audits, inspections, and evaluations; closed 9 investigations; and issued a strategic plan and compendium of open recommendations.
The OIG reports the results of its work on its public website and in its semiannual report to Congress. In addition, the OIG is currently coordinating with Treasury’s Office of the Special Inspector General for the Troubled Assets Relief Program (SIGTARP) on matters concerning the Federal Reserve, and participates with other financial regulatory IGs on the TARP IG Council. In addition, the SIGTARP has authority to review certain Federal Reserve System activities that involve the expenditure of funds from the Troubled Asset Relief Program. Four SIGTARP reviews are currently underway.
Oversight of the Reserve Banks
Each Reserve Bank has an independent internal audit function that reports to the audit committee of each Bank’s board of directors. The internal audit function is responsible for identifying risks and assessing the effectiveness of the Reserve Bank’s risk management, control, and governance processes.
In addition, the Reserve Banks are subject to general supervision by the Board of Governors and, in certain matters, the Board’s specific authorization or approval. The Board of Governors’ oversight includes assessing whether Reserve Bank strategies, objectives, and other matters are reasonable and take into consideration all significant and relevant issues and monitoring and reviewing ongoing operations and the implementation of major initiatives.
The Scope of Audits
The scope and frequency of audits are based on the specific risk factors inherent in each Bank’s operations, including the nature of the activities it conducts, the prevailing level of controls surrounding these activities, and the quality and experience of the individuals assigned to the operation.
Internal audits at each Reserve Bank involve verification of assets, liabilities, and items held in custody. Auditors check both the physical presence of these items and the timely and accurate reporting of their movement. An evaluation of the adequacy of controls throughout the Bank and of compliance with prescribed procedures also is done. Audits are performed periodically in order to determine if the auditors’ perceptions of prevailing risk levels and operating conditions since the last review remain valid. Periodic audits also help to determine whether previously identified problems and issues were adequately addressed and remedied, and to ascertain whether new problems or issues have emerged.
Although auditing procedures differ among the 12 Reserve Banks, their emphases are broadly similar. At the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the audit staff reviews the cash, check, fiscal, electronic payments, and accounting areas, and all of the service and professional operations (which include legal, bank supervision and regulation, and research and statistics). It also audits centralized electronic data processing operations and automated systems under development. These audits consist of reviews of the Bank’s data centers, with primary emphasis on environmental software products, including data base systems, operating systems, and data communications systems. Auditors evaluate the strength of internal controls and security of each software product, as well as the procedures and controls put in place by the organizational unit responsible for it. An auditor at the Buffalo Branch reviews activities there.
Audits of automated systems under development similarly concentrate on the adequacy of controls and security. These audits are intended to ensure that appropriate checks and balances are in place for each automated processing operation. Audit teams check the accuracy of records pertaining to transactions that flow through the system and certify that systems under development are fully and adequately tested before being placed into production.
Together with two other departments of the Bank, the audit staff controls activities in the Bank’s gold vault, which stores about one-quarter of the world’s official gold reserves. Auditors monitor all gold transactions, both deposits and withdrawals, and independently verify accounting records and balances pertaining to gold held in custody by the Bank.
Vice Chairman Donald L. Kohn
Federal Reserve independence
Before the Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy and Technology, Committee on Financial Services, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.
July 9, 2009
Chairman Watt, Ranking Member Paul, and other members of the Subcommittee, I appreciate the opportunity to discuss with you the important public policy reasons why the Congress has long given the Federal Reserve a substantial degree of independence to conduct monetary policy while ensuring that we remain accountable to the Congress and to the American people. In addition, I will explain why an extension of the Federal Reserve’s supervisory and regulatory responsibilities as part of a broader initiative to address systemic risks would be compatible with the pursuit of our statutory monetary policy objectives. I also will discuss the significant steps the Federal Reserve has taken recently to improve our transparency and maintain accountability.
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